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Diet Leaves a Genetic Signature in a Keystone Member of the Gut Microbiota

75 Pages Posted: 18 Aug 2021 Publication Status: Published

See all articles by Tanja Dapa

Tanja Dapa

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência

Miguel F. Pedro

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência

Ricardo S. Ramiro

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência

Isabel Gordo

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência

Karina Xavier

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência

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Abstract

Dietary switch from a low-fat and high-fiber diet to a Western-style high-fat and high-sugar diet is a common cause of microbiota imbalances underlying a variety of pathological conditions (dysbiosis). Although the effects of such dietary changes on microbiota composition and functions are well documented, their putative impact in gut bacterial evolution remains unexplored. Here we followed the emergence of mutations in Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prevalent fiber-degrading microbiota member, upon colonization of the murine gut under different dietary regimens. B. thetaiotaomicron evolved rapidly to the gut and Western-style diet selected for mutations that promote the degradation of mucin-derived glycans. Periodic changes in diet led to fluctuations in the frequency of such mutations and were associated with metabolic shifts, resulting in the maintenance of higher intra-species genetic diversity compared to constant dietary regimens. Finally, our results suggest that B. thetaiotaomicron genetic diversity can be a biomarker for dietary differences among individuals.

Keywords: Microbiota; High-Fat High-Sugar Diet; Western-style diet; Microbiota Evolution; Gut Dysbiosis; Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; Bacteroidetes; Gut Metabolon; Gut Ecology; Multiomics analyzes

Suggested Citation

Dapa, Tanja and Pedro, Miguel F. and Ramiro, Ricardo S. and Gordo, Isabel and Xavier, Karina, Diet Leaves a Genetic Signature in a Keystone Member of the Gut Microbiota. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3907580 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3907580
This version of the paper has not been formally peer reviewed.

Tanja Dapa

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência ( email )

Oeiras
Portugal

Miguel F. Pedro

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência ( email )

Oeiras
Portugal

Ricardo S. Ramiro

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência ( email )

Oeiras
Portugal

Isabel Gordo

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência

Oeiras
Portugal

Karina Xavier (Contact Author)

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência ( email )

Oeiras
Portugal

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