Contractual Inequality

51 Pages Posted: 3 Sep 2021 Last revised: 26 May 2022

See all articles by Manisha Padi

Manisha Padi

University of California, Berkeley - School of Law

Date Written: September 1, 2021


Most individuals strive to satisfy every obligation laid out in standard form contracts such as mortgages, insurance plans, or credit agreements. Sophisticated parties, however, adapt and modify their obligations during contract performance by negotiating for lenient treatment and taking advantage of unclear terms. The common law explicitly authorizes variance from standardized contract terms during performance. When the same standard terms create value for sophisticated individuals and destroy value for others, the result is contractual inequality. Contractual inequality has grown without scrutiny by courts or scholars, enabling regressive redistribution of resources and creating economic inefficiency by sowing distrust in markets for consumer contracts.

To document the magnitude of contractual inequality, this Article provides novel empirical evidence from a case study of residential mortgage contracts. Data from a large nationwide sample show that many mortgage servicers choose not to utilize their power to foreclose on a borrower in default, with more than one-third of nonpaying borrowers avoiding foreclosure. Servicers disproportionately foreclose on borrowers in poor neighborhoods, regressively redistributing over $500 million in wealth to high-income communities each year. Moreover, servicers’ unfettered freedom to choose who undergoes foreclosure may have reduced the value of mortgages to consumers, increasing market inefficiency.

Courts and regulators need not turn a blind eye to contractual inequality, al-lowing private market forces to determine the exercise of contract rights. This Article argues that lawmakers should gather information about inequalities in contract performance and disseminate such data to private and public enforcement authorities. By bringing these inequalities to light, lawmakers can take a first step toward more efficient contract markets and a more equal society.

Keywords: Inequality, mortgages, law and economics, consumer law, household finance

JEL Classification: K12, G21, D18

Suggested Citation

Padi, Manisha, Contractual Inequality (September 1, 2021). Michigan Law Review, Vol. 120, (2022) pg. 825, Available at SSRN: or

Manisha Padi (Contact Author)

University of California, Berkeley - School of Law ( email )

215 Boalt Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720-7200
United States

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