86 Pages Posted: 10 Sep 2021 Last revised: 10 May 2022
Date Written: May 10, 2022
Around the country, state courts are being flooded with the claims of massive repeat filers. These large corporate plaintiffs leverage economies of scale to bring tremendous quantities of low-value claims against largely unrepresented individual defendants. Using recently developed litigation-analytics tools, this article presents the first nationwide study of these “assembly-line plaintiffs,” examining millions of cases across hundreds of jurisdictions. It documents the pervasive nature of this litigation, finding that in many court systems just the top ten private filers account for between one fifth and one third of all civil litigation.
This pattern raises serious concerns. Drawing on existing empirical literature and a sample of 1,000 recent case dockets, the article describes how these cases turn state courts into near-automatic claims processors for large corporations, transferring assets from mostly absent defendants without significant scrutiny of the underlying claims. These defendants, moreover, are often particularly vulnerable low-income consumers or members of other marginalized groups. And although many concerns raised by this litigation overlap with those related to unrepresented litigants more broadly, the structural features of assembly-line litigation—its one-sidedness, high volume, and low claim value—present distinctive challenges. The article concludes by considering a few specific potential reforms designed to meet those challenges: assessing a surcharge on frequent filers as a form of congestion pricing; enabling common defenses to be asserted as affirmative causes of action to facilitate aggregation; and moving courts away from one-case-at-a-time adjudication toward a more investigative, administrative-agency-like model.
Keywords: state courts, civil procedure, litigation, courts, debt collection, consumer law
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