Reverse Innovation, International Patenting and Economic Inertia: Constraints to Appropriating the Benefits of Technological Innovation

“Reverse Innovation, International Patenting and Economic Inertia: Constraints to Appropriating the Benefits of Technological Innovation,” Technology in Society, Volume 67, November 2021, 101712. Kelvin W. Willoughby & Nadezhda Mullina. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2021.101712

51 Pages Posted: 13 Sep 2021

See all articles by Kelvin Willoughby

Kelvin Willoughby

HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management

Date Written: September 1, 2021

Abstract

In this paper we compare the role of outward-bound international patenting in “reverse innovation” and in conventional international modes of innovation. Through analysis of panel data from 148 countries over 18 years we reveal that, while all countries may in principle appropriate economic benefits from endogenous technological innovation by increasing their level of outward-bound international patenting, the ability of a country to do so may be hampered by the pre-existing level of its economy. We classify countries in to four strategic innovation quadrants—Slow Movers, Traders, Inventors and Cosmopolitans—based on the relative change over time in their competitiveness in international patenting and their per capita wealth. The mix of wealthy countries and less wealthy countries varies greatly between quadrants, with the wealthy countries dominating the Cosmopolitans quadrant and the less wealthy countries dominating the Slow Movers quadrant. We conclude that, for lower income countries to improve their success in appropriating the benefits of reverse innovation, innovators and would-be innovators based in those countries need to develop sophistication and prowess in international patenting strategy and intellectual property management tailored to the unique conditions of each country.

Keywords: Reverse innovation, outward-bound international patenting, intellectual property management, innovation policy, endogenous innovation, economic development

Suggested Citation

Willoughby, Kelvin Wayne, Reverse Innovation, International Patenting and Economic Inertia: Constraints to Appropriating the Benefits of Technological Innovation (September 1, 2021). “Reverse Innovation, International Patenting and Economic Inertia: Constraints to Appropriating the Benefits of Technological Innovation,” Technology in Society, Volume 67, November 2021, 101712. Kelvin W. Willoughby & Nadezhda Mullina. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2021.101712, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3920266

Kelvin Wayne Willoughby (Contact Author)

HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management ( email )

Jahnallee 59
Leipzig, 04109

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