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The 2021 WHO Catalogue of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Mutations Associated with Drug Resistance: A New Global Standard for Molecular Diagnostics
29 Pages Posted: 21 Sep 2021More...
Background: Molecular diagnostics are considered the most promising route to achieving rapid, universal drug susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis . There is currently no WHO endorsed catalogue of mutations to serve as a global standard for interpreting molecular information for drug resistance prediction.
Methods: A candidate gene approach was used to identify mutations as associated with resistance, or consistent with susceptibility, for 13 WHO endorsed anti-tuberculosis drugs. 38,215 M. tuberculosis isolates with paired whole-genome sequencing and phenotypic drug susceptibility data were amassed from 41 countries. Mutations were graded according to their odds ratio and associated false discovery rate corrected p-value, and their positive predictive value for phenotypic resistance. A series of expert rules were applied for final confidence grading of each mutation.
Findings: 15,667 associations were computed for 13,211 unique mutations linked to one or more drugs. 1,149/15,667 (7·3%) mutations were classified as associated with phenotypic resistance and 107/15,667 (0·7%) were deemed consistent with susceptibility. For rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, fluoroquinolones, and streptomycin, the mutations’ pooled sensitivity was >80%. Specificity was over 95% for all drugs except ethionamide (91·4%), moxifloxacin (91·6%) and ethambutol (93·3%). Only two resistance mutations were classified for bedaquiline, delamanid, clofazimine, and linezolid as prevalence of phenotypic resistance was low for these drugs.
Interpretation: This first WHO endorsed catalogue of molecular targets for M. tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing provides a global standard for resistance interpretation. It will be expanded as data emerge on phenotypically resistant isolates, including for new and repurposed drugs.
Funding: UNITAID, Wellcome, MRC, BMGF.
Declaration of Interest: C.U.K. is a consultant Becton Dickinson, the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics and the TB Alliance. C.U.K. is collaborating with PZA Innovation and Thermo Fisher Scientific. C.U.K. worked as a consultant for QuantuMDx, the Stop TB Partnership, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global TB Programme and the WHO Regional Office for Europe. C.U.K. gave a paid educational talk for Oxford Immunotec. Hain Lifescience covered C.U.K.’s and accommodation to present at a meeting. C.U.K. is an unpaid advisor to BioVersys and GenoScreen. E.R. is employed by Public Health England and holds an honorary contract with Imperial College London. I.F.L. is Director of the Scottish Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory. S.N. receives funding from German Center for Infection Research, Excellenz Cluster Precision Medicine in Chronic Inflammation, Leibniz Science Campus Evolutionary Medicine of the LUNG (EvoLUNG)tion EXC 2167. P.S. is a consultant at Genoscreen. T.R. is funded by NIH and DoD and receives salary support from the non-profit organization FIND. T.R. is a cofounder, board member and shareholder of Verus Diagnostics Inc, a company that was founded with the intent of developing diagnostic assays. Verus Diagnostics was not involved in any way with data collection, analysis or publication of the results. T.R. has not received any financial support from Verus Diagnostics. UCSD Conflict of Interest office has reviewed and approved T.R.’s role in Verus Diagnostics Inc. T.R. is a co-inventor of a provisional patent for a TB diagnostic assay (provisional patent #: 63/048.989). T.R. is a co-inventor on a patent associated with the processing of TB sequencing data (European Patent Application No. 14840432.0 & USSN 14/912,918). T.R. has agreed to “donate all present and future interest in and rights to royalties from this patent” to UCSD to ensure that he does not receive any financial benefits from this patent. S.S. is working and holding ESOPs at HaystackAnalytics Pvt. Ltd. (Product: Using whole genome sequencing for drug susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis). G.F.G. is listed as an inventor on patent applications for RBDdimer- based CoV vaccines. No other authors declare a conflict of
Ethical Approval: Approval for CRyPTIC study was obtained by Taiwan Centers for Disease Control IRB No. 106209, University of KwaZulu Natal Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (UKZN BREC) (reference BE022/13) and University of Liverpool Central University Research Ethics Committees (reference 2286), Institutional Research Ethics Committee (IREC) of The Foundation for Medical Research, Mumbai (Ref nos. FMR/IEC/TB/01a/2015 and FMR/IEC/TB/01b/2015), Institutional Review Board of P.D. Hinduja Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mumbai (Ref no. 915-15-CR [MRC]), scientific committee of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (CTC-IAL 47-J / 2017) and in the Ethics Committee (CAAE: 81452517.1.0000.0059) and Ethics Committee review by Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (Lima, Peru) and LSHTM (London, UK).
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, drug resistance, whole genome sequencing, catalogue, World Health Organization
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