The COVID-19 Pandemic, Policy Responses and Stock Markets in the G20

30 Pages Posted: 27 Sep 2021

See all articles by Guglielmo Maria Caporale

Guglielmo Maria Caporale

Brunel University London - Department of Economics and Finance; London South Bank University; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute); German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin)

Woo-Young Kang

Brunel University London - Department of Economics and Finance

Fabio Spagnolo

Brunel University London - Economics and Finance

Nicola Spagnolo

Brunel University London - Economics and Finance

Date Written: 2021

Abstract

This paper analyses the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on stock market returns and their volatility in the case of the G20 countries. In contrast to the existing empirical literature, which typically focuses only on either Covid-19 deaths or lockdown policies, our analysis is based on a comprehensive dynamic panel model accounting for the effects of both the epidemiological situation and restrictive measures as well as of fiscal and monetary responses; moreover, instead of Covid-19 deaths it uses a far more sophisticated Covid-19 index based on a Balanced Worth (BW) methodology, and it also takes into account heterogeneity by providing additional estimates for the G7 and the remaining countries (non-G7) separately. We find that the stock markets of the G7 are affected negatively by government restrictions more than the Covid-19 pandemic itself. By contrast, in the non-G7 countries both variables have a negative impact. Further, lockdowns during periods with particularly severe Covid-19 conditions decrease returns in the non-G7 countries whilst increase volatility in the G7 ones. Fiscal and monetary policy (the latter measured by the shadow short rate) have positive and negative effects, respectively, on the stock markets of the G7 countries but not of non-G7 ones. In brief, our evidence suggests that restrictions and other policy measures play a more important role in the G7 countries whilst the Covid-19 pandemic itself is a key determinant in the case the non-G7 stock markets.

Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, stringency index, Covid-19 index, fiscal policy, shadow rates, stock markets

JEL Classification: C330, G150, E520, E620

Suggested Citation

Caporale, Guglielmo Maria and Kang, Woo-Young and Spagnolo, Fabio and Spagnolo, Nicola, The COVID-19 Pandemic, Policy Responses and Stock Markets in the G20 (2021). CESifo Working Paper No. 9299, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3929193 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3929193

Guglielmo Maria Caporale (Contact Author)

Brunel University London - Department of Economics and Finance ( email )

Kingston Lane
Marie Jahoda Building
Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH
United Kingdom
+44 1895 266713 (Phone)
+44 1895 269770 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.brunel.ac.uk/about/acad/bbs/bbsstaff/ef_staff/guglielmocaporale/

London South Bank University ( email )

Centre for Monetary and Financial Economics
London
United Kingdom

CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)

Poschinger Str. 5
Munich, DE-81679
Germany

German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) ( email )

Mohrenstra├če 58
Berlin, 10117
Germany

Woo-Young Kang

Brunel University London - Department of Economics and Finance ( email )

Kingston Lane
Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH
United Kingdom

Fabio Spagnolo

Brunel University London - Economics and Finance ( email )

Uxbridge UB8 3PH
United Kingdom
+44 1895 816383 (Phone)
+44 1895 203303 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.brunel.ac.uk/depts/ecf/Staff/SpagnoloF/Main.htm

Nicola Spagnolo

Brunel University London - Economics and Finance ( email )

Uxbridge UB8 3PH
United Kingdom

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