Countermajoritarian Legislatures: Appendix

11 Pages Posted: 3 Oct 2021

See all articles by Miriam Seifter

Miriam Seifter

University of Wisconsin Law School

Date Written: September 30, 2021


This Appendix first describes the methodology used to tally manufactured majorities that occurred in state legislatures between 1968 and 2016. It then provides the tallies from state senates and state assemblies, as well as histograms showing how manufactured majorities depart from the majority threshold. Although subject to limitations discussed below in and in the main Article, the analysis here shows that manufactured majorities have been a recurring outcome of state legislative elections.

Keywords: state constitutional law, separation of powers, democracy, majority rule

Suggested Citation

Seifter, Miriam, Countermajoritarian Legislatures: Appendix (September 30, 2021). Univ. of Wisconsin Legal Studies Research Paper No. 1721, Available at SSRN: or

Miriam Seifter (Contact Author)

University of Wisconsin Law School ( email )

975 Bascom Mall
Madison, WI 53706
United States

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