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Determinants of Pre-Vaccination Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study (COVIDENCE UK)

31 Pages Posted: 18 Oct 2021

See all articles by Mohammad Talaei

Mohammad Talaei

Queen Mary University of London - Institute of Population Health Sciences

Sian Faustini

University of Birmingham - Clinical Immunology Service

Hayley Holt

Queen Mary University of London - Institute of Population Health Sciences

David Jolliffe

Queen Mary University of London - Blizard Institute

Giulia Vivaldi

Queen Mary University of London - Centre for Immunobiology

Matthew Greenig

Queen Mary University of London

Natalia Perdek

Queen Mary University of London

Sheena Maltby

Queen Mary University of London

Jane Symons

Jane Symons Media

Gwyneth A. Davies

Swansea University - Swansea University Medical School

Ronan A. Lyons

Swansea University - Population Data Science

Christopher J. Griffiths

Queen Mary University of London - Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research

Frank Kee

Queen's University Belfast

Aziz Sheikh

University of Edinburgh - Usher Institute

Alex G. Richter

University of Birmingham - Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences; University of Birmingham - Clinical Immunology Service

Seif O. Shaheen

Queen Mary University of London - Institute of Population Health Sciences

Adrian R. Martineau

Queen Mary University of London - Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry; Queen Mary University of London - Institute of Population Health Sciences; Queen Mary University of London - Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research; Queen Mary University of London - Wolfson Institute of Population Health

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Abstract

Background: Prospective population-based studies investigating multiple determinants of pre-vaccination antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 are lacking.

Methods: We did a prospective population-based study in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-naive UK adults between May 1 and Nov 2, 2020. Information on 88 potential risk factors was obtained through online questionnaires, and combined IgG/IgA/IgM responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein were determined in dried blood spots. We used logistic and linear regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and adjusted geometric mean ratios (aGMRs) for potential determinants of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity (all participants) and antibody titres (seropositive participants only), respectively.

Findings: 1696 (15.2%) of 11,130 participants were seropositive. Factors independently associated with increased risk included frontline health/care occupation (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.49–2.33), international travel (1.22, 1.08–1.37), BMI >30 vs <25 kg/m² (1.22, 1.05–1.42), Asian/Asian British vs White ethnicity (1.65, 1.10–2.47), and alcohol consumption ≥15 vs 0 units/week (1.26, 1.06–1.49). Light physical exercise associated with decreased risk (0.80, 0.69–0.93, for ≥10 vs 0–4 h/week). Higher titres associated with frontline health/care occupation (aGMR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13–1.41), international travel (1.10, 1.04–1.16), BMI >30 vs <25 kg/m² (1.09, 1.01–1.17), and Asian/Asian British vs White ethnicity (1.23, 1.03–1.46); these associations were not substantially attenuated by adjustment for disease severity.

Interpretation: Higher alcohol consumption and reduced physical exercise represent new modifiable risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recognised associations between Asian/Asian British ethnic origin and obesity and increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity were independent of other sociodemographic, clinical, or behavioural factors investigated.

Funding: Barts Charity, Health Data Research UK.

Declaration of Interest: JS declares receipt of payments from Reach plc for news stories written about recruitment to, and findings of, the COVIDENCE UK study. AS is a member of the Scottish Government Chief Medical Officer’s COVID-19 Advisory Group and its Standing Committee on Pandemics. He is also a member of the UK Government’s NERVTAG’s Risk Stratification Subgroup. ARM declares receipt of funding in the last 36 months to support vitamin D research from the following companies who manufacture or sell vitamin D supplements: Pharma Nord Ltd, DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, Thornton & Ross Ltd, Cytoplan Ltd and Hyphens Pharma Ltd. ARM also declares support for attending meetings from the following companies who manufacture or sell vitamin D supplements: Pharma Nord Ltd and Abiogen Pharma Ltd. ARM also declares participation on the Data and Safety Monitoring Board for the Chair, DSMB, VITALITY trial (Vitamin D for Adolescents with HIV to reduce musculoskeletal morbidity and immunopathology). ARM also declares unpaid work as a Programme Committee member for the Vitamin D Workshop. ARM also declares receipt of vitamin D capsules for clinical trial use from Pharma Nord Ltd, Synergy Biologics Ltd and Cytoplan Ltd.

Ethical Approval: COVIDENCE UK was sponsored by Queen Mary University of London and approved by Leicester South Research Ethics Committee (ref 20/EM/0117). It is registered with
ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04330599).

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, anti-S IgG IgA IgM, alcohol, physical exercise, ethnicity, obesity, travel, occupation

Suggested Citation

Talaei, Mohammad and Faustini, Sian and Holt, Hayley and Jolliffe, David and Vivaldi, Giulia and Greenig, Matthew and Perdek, Natalia and Maltby, Sheena and Symons, Jane and Davies, Gwyneth A. and Lyons, Ronan A. and Griffiths, Christopher J. and Kee, Frank and Sheikh, Aziz and Richter, Alex G. and Shaheen, Seif O. and Martineau, Adrian R., Determinants of Pre-Vaccination Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study (COVIDENCE UK). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3944582 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3944582

Mohammad Talaei

Queen Mary University of London - Institute of Population Health Sciences ( email )

London
United Kingdom

Sian Faustini

University of Birmingham - Clinical Immunology Service ( email )

United Kingdom

Hayley Holt

Queen Mary University of London - Institute of Population Health Sciences ( email )

London
United Kingdom

David Jolliffe

Queen Mary University of London - Blizard Institute ( email )

Giulia Vivaldi

Queen Mary University of London - Centre for Immunobiology ( email )

Matthew Greenig

Queen Mary University of London ( email )

Mile End Road
London, E1 4NS
United Kingdom

Natalia Perdek

Queen Mary University of London ( email )

Mile End Road
London, E1 4NS
United Kingdom

Sheena Maltby

Queen Mary University of London ( email )

Mile End Road
London, E1 4NS
United Kingdom

Jane Symons

Jane Symons Media ( email )

London
United Kingdom

Gwyneth A. Davies

Swansea University - Swansea University Medical School ( email )

Singleton Park
Swansea, Wales SA2 8PP
United Kingdom

Ronan A. Lyons

Swansea University - Population Data Science ( email )

Christopher J. Griffiths

Queen Mary University of London - Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research ( email )

Frank Kee

Queen's University Belfast ( email )

Aziz Sheikh

University of Edinburgh - Usher Institute ( email )

Alex G. Richter

University of Birmingham - Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences ( email )

Edgbaston
Birminham, Birmingham B152TT
United Kingdom

University of Birmingham - Clinical Immunology Service ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Seif O. Shaheen

Queen Mary University of London - Institute of Population Health Sciences ( email )

London
United Kingdom

Adrian R. Martineau (Contact Author)

Queen Mary University of London - Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry ( email )

Blizard Institute
4 Newark St.
London, E1 2AT
United Kingdom
+44 207 882 2551 (Phone)
+44 207 882 2552 (Fax)

Queen Mary University of London - Institute of Population Health Sciences ( email )

London
United Kingdom
+44 207 882 2551 (Phone)
+44 207 882 2552 (Fax)

Queen Mary University of London - Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research

London
United Kingdom

Queen Mary University of London - Wolfson Institute of Population Health ( email )

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