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SARS CoV-2 Antibody Seroprevalence in Jakarta, Indonesia: March 2021

15 Pages Posted: 1 Nov 2021

See all articles by Iwan Ariawan

Iwan Ariawan

University of Indonesia (UI) - Faculty of Public Health

Hafizah Jusril

University of Indonesia (UI) - Faculty of Public Health

Muhammad N. Farid

University of Indonesia (UI) - Faculty of Public Health

Pandu Riono

University of Indonesia (UI) - Faculty of Public Health

Wiji Wahyuningsih

University of Indonesia (UI) - Faculty of Public Health

Widyastuti

Jakarta Provincial Department of Health

Dwi Oktavia

Jakarta Provincial Department of Health

Endang Sri Wahyuningsih

DKI Jakarta Provincial Health Office

Rebekka Daulay

DKI Jakarta Provincial Health Office

Retno Henderiawati

DKI Jakarta Provincial Health Office

Safarina G. Malik

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency

Rintis Noviyanti

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency

Leily Trianty

University of Indonesia (UI) - Eijkman Institute of Molecular Biology (EIMB)

Nadia Fadila

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency

Khin Saw Aye Myint

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency

Frilasita Aisyah Yudhaputri

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency

William A. Hawley

Government of the United States of America - Center for Global Health

Venkatachalam Udhayakumar

Government of the United States of America - Division of Global Health Protection

Juliette Morgan

Government of the United States of America - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Neeraja Venkateswaran

Tetracore, Inc. Rockville

Kodumudi Venkateswaran

Tetracore, Inc. Rockville

Paul M. Pronyk

The SingHealth Duke-NUS Global Health Institute (SDGHI)

More...

Abstract

Background: The dynamics of SARS CoV-2 transmission among urban centers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains poorly understood. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS CoV-2 antibodies in Jakarta, Indonesia – the country in Southeast Asia with the highest number of reported cases and deaths, to increase knowledge of SARS CoV-2 transmission in large urban settings in Southeast Asia. 

Methods: We conducted a population-based serosurvey among individuals aged one year or older across Jakarta’s six districts. A stratified multi-stage sampling design was employed. Samples were stratified by district, slum and non-slum residency, sex, and age-group. Participants were interviewed to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, weight and height measurements, and a history of COVID-19 diagnosis and/or recent contact. Blood samples were collected and tested for IgG against three different SARS-CoV-2 antigens using the Human IgG Tetracore® FlexImmArray™ SARS-CoV-2 Human IgG test. Seroprevalence was estimated after applying sample weights and adjusting for cluster characteristics. 

Findings: During March 2021, 4,919 individuals were enrolled in the study. The weighted estimate of seroprevalence was 44·5% (95% CI 42·5-46·5). Seroprevalence was highest among adults 30-49 years old, with higher seroprevalence detected in women and among those with a body mass index that was overweight or obese. Respondents residing in slum areas were 1·3-fold more likely to be seropositive than non-slum residents.  We estimated that 4,717,000 of Jakarta’s 10·6 million residents had prior SARS CoV-2 infection. These findings suggest that for every reported confirmed case, approximately 10 infections were undiagnosed or underreported. 

Interpretation: Approximately one year after the first cases of COVID-19 were confirmed, close to half of Jakarta’s residents have been infected by SARS CoV-2. Urban centers in LMICs remain the places in the world most vulnerable to SARS CoV-2 transmission, as well as its adverse health and social consequences.

Funding: Provincial Government of Jakarta, CDC, Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency

Declaration of Interest: All authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of University of Atmajaya (No 1245A/III/LPPM.PM.10.05/11/2020).

Keywords: SARS CoV-2, COVID-19, seroprevalence, serosurvey, prevalence, Indonesia

Suggested Citation

Ariawan, Iwan and Jusril, Hafizah and Farid, Muhammad N. and Riono, Pandu and Wahyuningsih, Wiji and , Widyastuti and Oktavia, Dwi and Wahyuningsih, Endang Sri and Daulay, Rebekka and Henderiawati, Retno and Malik, Safarina G. and Noviyanti, Rintis and Trianty, Leily and Fadila, Nadia and Myint, Khin Saw Aye and Yudhaputri, Frilasita Aisyah and Hawley, William A. and Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam and Morgan, Juliette and Venkateswaran, Neeraja and Venkateswaran, Kodumudi and Pronyk, Paul M., SARS CoV-2 Antibody Seroprevalence in Jakarta, Indonesia: March 2021. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3954041 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3954041

Iwan Ariawan

University of Indonesia (UI) - Faculty of Public Health ( email )

Depok, 16424
Indonesia

Hafizah Jusril (Contact Author)

University of Indonesia (UI) - Faculty of Public Health ( email )

Depok, 16424
Indonesia

Muhammad N. Farid

University of Indonesia (UI) - Faculty of Public Health ( email )

Depok, 16424
Indonesia

Pandu Riono

University of Indonesia (UI) - Faculty of Public Health ( email )

Depok, 16424
Indonesia

Wiji Wahyuningsih

University of Indonesia (UI) - Faculty of Public Health ( email )

Depok, 16424
Indonesia

Widyastuti

Jakarta Provincial Department of Health ( email )

Dwi Oktavia

Jakarta Provincial Department of Health ( email )

Endang Sri Wahyuningsih

DKI Jakarta Provincial Health Office ( email )

: Jl. Kesehatan No 10 Petojo Selatan, Kecamatan Ga
Jakarta
Indonesia

Rebekka Daulay

DKI Jakarta Provincial Health Office ( email )

: Jl. Kesehatan No 10 Petojo Selatan, Kecamatan Ga
Jakarta
Indonesia

Retno Henderiawati

DKI Jakarta Provincial Health Office ( email )

: Jl. Kesehatan No 10 Petojo Selatan, Kecamatan Ga
Jakarta
Indonesia

Safarina G. Malik

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency ( email )

Rumah 25 Sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jl. Pangeran Di
Jakarta
Indonesia

Rintis Noviyanti

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency ( email )

Rumah 25 Sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jl. Pangeran Di
Jakarta
Indonesia

Leily Trianty

University of Indonesia (UI) - Eijkman Institute of Molecular Biology (EIMB) ( email )

Jakarta
Indonesia

Nadia Fadila

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency ( email )

Rumah 25 Sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jl. Pangeran Di
Jakarta
Indonesia

Khin Saw Aye Myint

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency ( email )

Rumah 25 Sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jl. Pangeran Di
Jakarta
Indonesia

Frilasita Aisyah Yudhaputri

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology-National Research and Innovation Agency ( email )

Rumah 25 Sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jl. Pangeran Di
Jakarta
Indonesia

William A. Hawley

Government of the United States of America - Center for Global Health ( email )

United States

Venkatachalam Udhayakumar

Government of the United States of America - Division of Global Health Protection ( email )

United States

Juliette Morgan

Government of the United States of America - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ( email )

Atlanta, GA
United States

Neeraja Venkateswaran

Tetracore, Inc. Rockville ( email )

MD 20850
United States

Kodumudi Venkateswaran

Tetracore, Inc. Rockville ( email )

MD 20850
United States

Paul M. Pronyk

The SingHealth Duke-NUS Global Health Institute (SDGHI) ( email )

8 College Road
169857
Singapore

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