Gender Preferences in Job Vacancies and Workplace Gender Diversity

72 Pages Posted: 9 Nov 2021

See all articles by David Card

David Card

University of California, Berkeley

Fabrizio Colella

University of Lausanne - Department of Economics (DEEP); Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti

Rafael Lalive

University of Lausanne - Department of Economics (DEEP); IZA Institute of Labor Economics; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute for Economic Research)

Date Written: October 1, 2021

Abstract

In spring 2005, Austria launched a campaign to inform employers and newspapers that gender preferences in job advertisements were illegal. At the time over 40% of openings on the nation's largest job-board specified a preferred gender. Over the next year the fraction fell to under 5%. We merge data on filled vacancies to linked employer-employee data to study how the elimination of gender preferences affected hiring and job outcomes. Prior to the campaign, most stated preferences were concordant with the firm's existing gender composition, but a minority targeted the opposite gender - a subset we call non-stereotypical vacancies. Vacancies with a gender preference were very likely (>90%) to be filled by someone of that gender. We use pre-campaign vacancies to predict the probabilities of specifying preferences for females, males, or neither gender. We then conduct event studies of the effect of the campaign on the predicted groups. We find that the elimination of gender preferences led to a rise in the fraction of women hired for jobs likely to be targeted to men (and vice versa), increasing the diversity of hiring workplaces. Partially offsetting this effect, we find a reduction in the success of non-stereotypical vacancies in hiring the targeted gender, and indications of a decline in the efficiency of matching. For the much larger set of stereotypical vacancies, however, vacancy filling times, wages, and job durations were largely unaffected by the campaign, suggesting that the elimination of stated preferences had at most small consequences on overall job match efficiency.

Keywords: Anti-discrimination Policy, Gender Preference, Workplace Gender Segregation

JEL Classification: J16, J63, J68

Suggested Citation

Card, David and Colella, Fabrizio and Lalive, Rafael, Gender Preferences in Job Vacancies and Workplace Gender Diversity (October 1, 2021). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3960200

David Card (Contact Author)

University of California, Berkeley ( email )

310 Barrows Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720
United States

Fabrizio Colella

University of Lausanne - Department of Economics (DEEP) ( email )

BFSH1
Lausanne, 1015
Switzerland

Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti ( email )

Via Roentgen 1,
Room 5.C1-11
Milan, Milano 20136
Italy

Rafael Lalive

University of Lausanne - Department of Economics (DEEP) ( email )

BFSH1
Lausanne, 1015
Switzerland

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute for Economic Research)

Poschinger Str. 5
Munich, DE-81679
Germany

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Downloads
0
Abstract Views
30
PlumX Metrics