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Achieving High Immunogenicity Against Poliovirus With Fractional Doses of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in Ecuador
19 Pages Posted: 15 Nov 2021More...
Background: In January 2018, Ecuador changed its routine immunization schedule by replacing one full dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) administered intramuscularly at 2 months of age with two doses of fractional IPV (1/5th of full dose, fIPV) administered intradermally at 2 and 4 months of age; bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (serotypes 1 and 3, bOPV) continues to be used. We compared seroprevalence and titers of polio antibodies achieved by the past and the current immunization schedules.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional serological survey in children in Ecuador who received bOPV and either one IPV dose in 2017 or two fIPV doses in 2018. One blood sample was collected between October 2020 and March 2021 and analysed for presence of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies at CDC, Atlanta by microneutralization assay.
Findings: We obtained 321 analyzable samples from 329 (97·6%) enrolled children (160 received IPV and 161 fIPV). For serotype 2, seroprevalence was 50.0% (CI95%= 44·2-55·8%) for IPV and 83·2% (CI95%=78·5-87·1%) for fIPV recipients (p<0·001). Median antibody titers for serotype 2 were significantly lower for IPV than for fIPV recipients (3·0, CI95%= 3 – 3·5 vs. 4·8, CI95%= 4·5 – 5·2, p<0·001). Seroprevalence for serotypes 1 and 3 was above 90% and was not significantly different between IPV and fIPV recipients.
Interpretation: Ecuador achieved significantly better poliovirus serotype 2 immunogenicity with two fIPV doses than with one IPV dose, while preserving vaccine supply and reducing costs. Our data provide further evidence that fIPV is a beneficial and cost-effective option in polio immunization.
Funding Information: The World Health Organization to the University of San Francisco.
Declaration of Interests: All authors – no conflict of interest declared.
Ethics Approval Statement: The protocol was reviewed and approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee - CEISH-USFQ and by the Ethics Review Committee at the WHO in Geneva. After obtaining informed consent the children were enrolled.
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation