A Decade of Violence and Empty Stadiums in Egypt: When Does Emotion from the Terraces Affect Behaviour on the Pitch?

Forthcoming in Empirical Economics

23 Pages Posted: 9 Dec 2021 Last revised: 30 Jan 2023

See all articles by Carl Singleton

Carl Singleton

University of Stirling - School of Management

James Reade

University of Reading

Dominik Schreyer

WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management

Date Written: November 18, 2021

Abstract

In less than a decade, the Egyptian Premier League has experienced three distinct changes between periods of competition in either crowded or empty stadiums. We exploit this unique sequence of natural experiments, to answer two questions neglected by the still emerging literature on the effects of crowds on behaviour and decision-making. First, does reinstating a supportive crowd after a long period of absence affect performances on the pitch? Second, is any reduced home advantage from competing in empty stadiums robust to repeating such an experiment? We find that eliminating crowds decreased or even reversed home advantage after an incident of extreme crowd violence in 2012, but there were no significant effects when crowds were reinstated in 2018 and once more excluded in 2020.

Keywords: Attendance, COVID-19, Football, Home advantage, Natural Experiments, Referee Bias, Social Pressure

JEL Classification: C90, D91, L83, Z2

Suggested Citation

Singleton, Carl and Reade, James and Schreyer, Dominik, A Decade of Violence and Empty Stadiums in Egypt: When Does Emotion from the Terraces Affect Behaviour on the Pitch? (November 18, 2021). Forthcoming in Empirical Economics, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3967464 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3967464

Carl Singleton (Contact Author)

University of Stirling - School of Management ( email )

Stirling, FK9 4LA
United Kingdom

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.carlsingletoneconomics.com/

James Reade

University of Reading ( email )

Dominik Schreyer

WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management ( email )

Burgplatz 2
Vallendar, 56179
Germany

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