Racial Discrimination Is Associated with Greater Arterial Stiffness and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: The ELSA-Brasil Study

20 Pages Posted: 7 Dec 2021

See all articles by Lidyane V. Camelo

Lidyane V. Camelo

Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Department of Preventive and Social Medicine

Amanda Viana Machado

Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Postgraduate Program in Public Health

Dora Chor

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública

Rosane Harter Griep

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - Laboratory of Health and Environment Education

José Geraldo Mill

Federal University of Espirito Santo - Department of Physiological Sciences

Luisa Campos Caldeira Brant

Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Faculty of Medicine

Sandhi Maria Barreto

Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Department of Preventive and Social Medicine

Abstract

Purpose: The association between racial discrimination and subclinical cardiovascular markers remains under-examined. We aimed to investigate the association of race/color and racial discrimination with pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in the Brazilian context.

Methods: We used data from 10,110 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. Self-reported race/color and perceived racial discrimination were the exposures. PWV and c-IMT were used continuously and categorizing according to cutoff that indicates increased cardiovascular risk. Linear and logistic regression models were used.

Results: After adjustments for age, sex and education, Blacks and Browns presented higher means of PWV and c-IMT and had greater chances of PWV>10m/s and c-IMT≥75 th percentile than Whites. The magnitude of all these associations were higher among Blacks and Browns with racial discrimination. In final models, these associations remained statistically significant among Blacks and Browns with racial discrimination, but in Blacks and Browns without racial discrimination these associations were completely explained by established cardiovascular risk factors.

Conclusion: Blacks and Browns presented worse profiles of subclinical cardiovascular markers compared to Whites and those exposed to racial discrimination seem to have an additional cardiovascular risk that is not explained by established risk factors.

Note:
Funding Information: This study was funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (Department of Science and Technology) and the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (FINEP, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos and CNPq, National Research Council), Grant No 01 06 0010.00, 01 06 0212.00, 01 06 0300.00, 01 06 0278.00, 01 06 0115.00 and 01 06 0071.00. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brasil (CAPES) Finance Code 001. SMB, DC and RHG are research fellows of the National Research Council (CNPq). SMB is supported by a research grant (Pesquisador Mineiro) from the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), Brazil.

Declaration of Interests: None to declare.

Ethics Approval Statement: Ethics committees of all institutions involved approved the study, and volunteers gave written consent to participate.

Keywords: Racial Discrimination, Racial Inequalities in Health, Racism, Pulse Wave Velocity, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Arterial Stiffness, Cohort Studies, ELSA-Brasil.

Suggested Citation

Camelo, Lidyane V. and Machado, Amanda Viana and Chor, Dora and Griep, Rosane Harter and Mill, José Geraldo and Brant, Luisa Campos Caldeira and Barreto, Sandhi Maria, Racial Discrimination Is Associated with Greater Arterial Stiffness and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: The ELSA-Brasil Study. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3968012 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3968012

Lidyane V. Camelo (Contact Author)

Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Department of Preventive and Social Medicine ( email )

Brazil

Amanda Viana Machado

Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Postgraduate Program in Public Health ( email )

Brazil

Dora Chor

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública ( email )

Brazil

Rosane Harter Griep

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - Laboratory of Health and Environment Education ( email )

Brazil

José Geraldo Mill

Federal University of Espirito Santo - Department of Physiological Sciences ( email )

Luisa Campos Caldeira Brant

Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Faculty of Medicine ( email )

Sandhi Maria Barreto

Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Department of Preventive and Social Medicine ( email )

Brazil

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