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Intimate Partner Violence Prior to and During COVID-19 Measures in 30 Countries: A Global Cross-Sectional Study From the I-SHARE Consortium

38 Pages Posted: 30 Nov 2021

See all articles by Linda Campbell

Linda Campbell

University of Antwerp - Centre for Population, Family, and Health

Rayner K. J. Tan

University of North Carolina Project-China

Maximiliane Uhlich

University of Fribourg - Department of Psychology

Joel M. Francis

University of the Witwatersrand - Department of Family Medicine

Kristen Mark

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - Institute for Sexual and Gender Health

Naomi Miall

University of Glasgow - MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit; London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - Department of Clinical Research

Stefano Eleuteri

Sapienza University of Rome - Faculty of Medicine and Psychology

Amanda Gabster

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases

Simukai Shamu

Foundation for Professional Development - Health Systems Strengthening Division

Leona Plášilová

Charles University - Department of Psychology and Life Sciences

Elizabeth Kemigisha

Mbarara University of Science and Technology

Adesola Olumide

University of Ibadan - Institute of Child Health

Priya Kosana

University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill - Institute of Global Health and Infectious Diseases

Felipe Hurtado-Murillo

Doctor Peset University Hospital - Center for Sexual and Reproductive Health

Elin C. Larsson

Karolinska Institutet - Department of Women’s and Children’s Health

Amanda Cleeve

Karolinska Institutet - Department of Women’s and Children’s Health

Soraya Calvo González

Universidad de Oviedo - Department of Education Sciences

Gabriela Perrotta

University of Buenos Aires (UBA) - Faculty of Psychology

Victoria Fernández Albamonte

University of Buenos Aires (UBA) - Faculty of Psychology

Lucía Blanco

University of Buenos Aires (UBA) - Faculty of Psychology

Johanna Schröder

University of Hamburg - Institute for Sex Research

Adedamola Adebayo

University of Ibadan - Faculty of Public Health

Jacqueline Hendriks

Curtin University - Collaboration for Evidence

Hanna Saltis

Curtin University - Collaboration for Evidence

Michael Marks

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - Department of Clinical Research

Dan Wu

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - Department of Clinical Research

Tammary Esho

AMREF Health Africa - Centre of Excellence to end Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting

Peer Briken

University of Hamburg - Institute for Sex Research

Takhona Grace Hlatshwako

University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill - Institute of Global Health and Infectious Diseases

Rebecca Ryan

Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP) - Botswana Sexual and Reproductive Health Initiative

Nik Daliana Nik Farid

University of Malaya (UM) - Department of Social and Preventive Medicine

Raquel Gomez Bravo

Universite du Luxembourg - Institute for Health and Behaviour

Sarah Van de Velde

University of Antwerp - Centre for Population, Family, and Health

Joseph D. Tucker

University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill - Division of Infectious Disease

I-SHARE Research Consortium

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Abstract

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) causes substantial physical and psychological trauma. Measures introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including lockdowns and movement restrictions, may exacerbate IPV risk and reduce access to IPV support services. This cross-sectional study examines IPV prior to and during the implementation of COVID-19 measures, correlates of IPV during COVID measures, and IPV disclosure.

Methods: The International Sexual HeAlth and REproductive Health (I-SHARE) study collected data on sexual and reproductive health during COVID-19 measures from 20th July 2020 to 15th February 2021. Participants (≥ 18 years old) were recruited online. IPV was a primary outcome measured using items adapted from the WHO multi-country survey. Participant experiences of physical and sexual violence in the three months prior to COVID-19 measures were compared to IPV after the introduction of measures. Mixed effects modelling was used to determine IPV correlates, including key country-level variables such as lockdown stringency index.

Findings: The total sample included 23,067 participants in 30 countries. 15,336 participants answered IPV items on physical and sexual violence. A total of 1,486/15,336 (9·2%) participants stated that they had experienced either physical or sexual partner violence before COVID-19 measures, which decreased to 1,070 (7·0%) after COVID-19 measures. There were higher odds of experiencing physical and sexual violence since the implementation of COVID-19 measures for participants who identified as gay (aOR 2·44, 95% CI 1·25, 4·77) compared to those who identified as heterosexual. There were higher odds of physical violence for those who lived with a partner during all of the COVID-19 measures (aOR 2·52 95% CI 1·25,  5·11). At the country-level, participants living in countries with more stringent COVID-19 measures had lower odds of intimate partner sexual coercion during COVID-19 (aOR 0·94, 95% CI 0·90, 0·97). A total of 164/802 (20·5%) participants officially reported IPV during COVID-19 to authorities and 509/1070 (47·6%) disclosed IPV to friends or relatives. The main findings were robust when sensitivity analyses were performed based on sampling strategy, study population, and geographic region.

Interpretation: The I-SHARE data suggests a substantial burden of IPV during COVID-19 measures. However, COVID-19 measures may have prevented IPV in some settings. Informal social support networks were important for IPV disclosure. There is a need for investing in specific support systems for survivors of IPV during the implementation of measures designed to contain infectious disease outbreaks.

Funding Information: US National Institutes of Health.

Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests.

Ethics Approval Statement: Ethical approvals were sought from each country’s research and ethics committees before the start of the study. Ethical approval was obtained from Ghent University (BC-07988) and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for secondary data analysis (295989).

Keywords: IPV, COVID-19, Lockdown, physical violence, sexual coercion, sexual assault, sexual violence, global, social science.

Suggested Citation

Campbell, Linda and Tan, Rayner K. J. and Uhlich, Maximiliane and Francis, Joel M. and Mark, Kristen and Miall, Naomi and Eleuteri, Stefano and Gabster, Amanda and Shamu, Simukai and Plášilová, Leona and Kemigisha, Elizabeth and Olumide, Adesola and Kosana, Priya and Hurtado-Murillo, Felipe and Larsson, Elin C. and Cleeve, Amanda and Calvo González, Soraya and Perrotta, Gabriela and Fernández Albamonte, Victoria and Blanco, Lucía and Schröder, Johanna and Adebayo, Adedamola and Hendriks, Jacqueline and Saltis, Hanna and Marks, Michael and Wu, Dan and Esho, Tammary and Briken, Peer and Hlatshwako, Takhona Grace and Ryan, Rebecca and Daliana Nik Farid, Nik and Gomez Bravo, Raquel and Van de Velde, Sarah and Tucker, Joseph D. and Consortium, I-SHARE Research, Intimate Partner Violence Prior to and During COVID-19 Measures in 30 Countries: A Global Cross-Sectional Study From the I-SHARE Consortium. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3974550 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3974550

Linda Campbell

University of Antwerp - Centre for Population, Family, and Health ( email )

Antwerp
Belgium

Rayner K. J. Tan

University of North Carolina Project-China ( email )

Maximiliane Uhlich

University of Fribourg - Department of Psychology ( email )

Fribourg
Switzerland

Joel M. Francis

University of the Witwatersrand - Department of Family Medicine ( email )

Johannesburg
South Africa

Kristen Mark

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - Institute for Sexual and Gender Health ( email )

Minneapolis, MN
United States

Naomi Miall

University of Glasgow - MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit ( email )

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - Department of Clinical Research ( email )

United Kingdom

Stefano Eleuteri

Sapienza University of Rome - Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ( email )

Rome
Italy

Amanda Gabster

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases ( email )

Keppel St.
Bloomsbury, London, WC1E 7HT
United Kingdom

Simukai Shamu

Foundation for Professional Development - Health Systems Strengthening Division ( email )

Pretoria
South Africa

Leona Plášilová

Charles University - Department of Psychology and Life Sciences ( email )

Prague
Czech Republic

Elizabeth Kemigisha

Mbarara University of Science and Technology ( email )

Uganda

Adesola Olumide

University of Ibadan - Institute of Child Health ( email )

Ibadan
Nigeria

Priya Kosana

University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill - Institute of Global Health and Infectious Diseases ( email )

Chapel Hill, NC
United States

Felipe Hurtado-Murillo

Doctor Peset University Hospital - Center for Sexual and Reproductive Health ( email )

Valencia
Spain

Elin C. Larsson

Karolinska Institutet - Department of Women’s and Children’s Health ( email )

Karolinska
Sweden

Amanda Cleeve

Karolinska Institutet - Department of Women’s and Children’s Health ( email )

Karolinska
Sweden

Soraya Calvo González

Universidad de Oviedo - Department of Education Sciences ( email )

Oviedo
Spain

Gabriela Perrotta

University of Buenos Aires (UBA) - Faculty of Psychology ( email )

Buenos Aires
Argentina

Victoria Fernández Albamonte

University of Buenos Aires (UBA) - Faculty of Psychology ( email )

Buenos Aires
Argentina

Lucía Blanco

University of Buenos Aires (UBA) - Faculty of Psychology ( email )

Buenos Aires
Argentina

Johanna Schröder

University of Hamburg - Institute for Sex Research ( email )

Hamburg
Germany

Adedamola Adebayo

University of Ibadan - Faculty of Public Health ( email )

University of Ibadan
Ibadan, OR 10001
Nigeria

Jacqueline Hendriks

Curtin University - Collaboration for Evidence ( email )

Australia

Hanna Saltis

Curtin University - Collaboration for Evidence ( email )

Australia

Michael Marks

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - Department of Clinical Research ( email )

Dan Wu

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - Department of Clinical Research ( email )

United Kingdom

Tammary Esho

AMREF Health Africa - Centre of Excellence to end Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting ( email )

Nairobi
Kenya

Peer Briken

University of Hamburg - Institute for Sex Research ( email )

Hamburg
Germany

Takhona Grace Hlatshwako

University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill - Institute of Global Health and Infectious Diseases ( email )

Chapel Hill, NC
United States

Rebecca Ryan

Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP) - Botswana Sexual and Reproductive Health Initiative ( email )

Gaborone
Botswana

Nik Daliana Nik Farid

University of Malaya (UM) - Department of Social and Preventive Medicine ( email )

Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia

Raquel Gomez Bravo

Universite du Luxembourg - Institute for Health and Behaviour ( email )

Luxembourg

Sarah Van de Velde

University of Antwerp - Centre for Population, Family, and Health ( email )

Antwerp
Belgium

Joseph D. Tucker (Contact Author)

University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill - Division of Infectious Disease ( email )

No contact information is available for I-SHARE Research Consortium

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