Intentional Craniofacial Remodelling in Europe in the XIX th Century: Quantitative Evidence of Soft Tissue Modifications from Toulouse, France

20 Pages Posted: 13 Dec 2021

See all articles by Leila Galiay

Leila Galiay

Université de Paris

Raphaël Cornette

Université des Antilles

Laura Laliève

Université de Paris

Quentin Hennocq

Université de Paris

Connor Cross

University College London

Ali Alazmani

University of Leeds

Mehran Moazen

University College London

Roman Hossein Khonsari

Hospital Necker, Enfants Malades - Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department

Abstract

Intentional skull deformations have been practiced by every human population, since the prehistoric times until the XXth century. In Europe, they were specifically prevalent in the region of Toulouse, France. The soft-tissue modifications due to such practices are not well characterized in the literature due to the rarity of photographic data. Most studies on skull deformations are thus based on skeletal remains. Here we performed a controlled geometric morphometric assessment of 31 frontal pictures and 70 lateral pictures of individuals from Toulouse with intentional deformations extracted from two XIXth century historical French photographic archives. We measured the forces exerted on the skull vault by the traditional deformation device used Toulouse using a 3D-printed skull and pressure sensors. We showed that individuals with Toulouse deformations have distinctive facial features, caused by moderate forces exerted on the skull vault. Our results exhibit and quantify for the first time the real face of intentional skull deformations, which are a ubiquitous and distinctive feature of the human species.

Keywords: artificial skull deformation, intentional skull deformation, morphometric geometrics

Suggested Citation

Galiay, Leila and Cornette, Raphaël and Laliève, Laura and Hennocq, Quentin and Cross, Connor and Alazmani, Ali and Moazen, Mehran and Khonsari, Roman Hossein, Intentional Craniofacial Remodelling in Europe in the XIX th Century: Quantitative Evidence of Soft Tissue Modifications from Toulouse, France. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3983902 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3983902

Leila Galiay

Université de Paris ( email )

Raphaël Cornette

Université des Antilles ( email )

Pointe-à-Pitre
Guadeloupe

Laura Laliève

Université de Paris ( email )

Quentin Hennocq

Université de Paris ( email )

Connor Cross

University College London ( email )

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Ali Alazmani

University of Leeds ( email )

Leeds, LS2 9JT
United Kingdom

Mehran Moazen

University College London ( email )

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Roman Hossein Khonsari (Contact Author)

Hospital Necker, Enfants Malades - Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department ( email )

149 Rue de Sèvres
Paris, 75015
France

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