Market Power and Artificial Intelligence Work on Online Labour Markets

52 Pages Posted: 15 Dec 2021

See all articles by Néstor Duch-Brown

Néstor Duch-Brown

Joint Research Centre - European Commission

Estrella Gomez-Herrera

Joint Research Center of the European Commission; University of Balearic Islands

Frank Mueller-Langer

University of the Bundeswehr Munich; Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition; European Commission, Joint Research Center

Songül Tolan

Joint Research Center of the European Commission

Date Written: December 13, 2021

Abstract

We investigate three alternative but complementary indicators of market power on one of the largest online labour markets (OLMs) in Europe: (1) the elasticity of labour demand, (2) the elasticity of labour supply, and (3) the concentration of market shares. We explore how these indicators relate to an exogenous change in platform policy. In the middle of the observation period, the platform made it mandatory for employers to signal the rates they were willing to pay as given by the level of experience required to perform a project, i.e., entry, intermediate or expert level. We find a positive labour supply elasticity ranging between 0.06 and 0.15, which is higher for expert-level projects. We also find that the labour demand elasticity increased while the labour supply elasticity decreased after the policy change. Based on this, we argue that market-designing platform providers can influence the labour demand and supply elasticities on OLMs with the terms and conditions they set for the platform. We also explore the demand for and supply of AI-related labour on the OLM under study. We provide evidence for a significantly higher demand for AI-related labour (ranging from +1.4% to +4.1%) and a significantly lower supply of AI-related labour (ranging from -6.8% to -1.6%) than for other types of labour. We also find that workers on AI projects receive 3.0%-3.2% higher wages than workers on non-AI projects.

Keywords: Online labour markets, artificial intelligence, market power, exogenous change in platform policy

JEL Classification: D40, J40

Suggested Citation

Duch-Brown, Néstor and Gomez-Herrera, Estrella and Mueller-Langer, Frank and Tolan, Songül, Market Power and Artificial Intelligence Work on Online Labour Markets (December 13, 2021). Research Policy, Forthcoming, Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 22-01, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3984190

Néstor Duch-Brown

Joint Research Centre - European Commission ( email )

Edificio Expo, C
Inca Garcilaso, 3
Sevilla, E-41092
Spain

Estrella Gomez-Herrera

Joint Research Center of the European Commission ( email )

Via E. Fermi 2749
1049
Belgium

University of Balearic Islands ( email )

Crta Valldemossa km. 7,5
Palma de Mallorca, Islas Baleares / Illes Balears 07003
Spain

Frank Mueller-Langer (Contact Author)

University of the Bundeswehr Munich ( email )

Munich
Germany

Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition ( email )

Munich
Germany

European Commission, Joint Research Center

Seville
Spain

Songül Tolan

Joint Research Center of the European Commission ( email )

Sevilla
Spain

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