Research on Healthcare Innovations in India: Before, During and Beyond COVID-19

35 Pages Posted: 15 Dec 2021

Date Written: December 14, 2021


The healthcare sector is one of the fastest-growing sectors globally as well as in India, with innovations being one of the key drivers of this growth, especially during this novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Given its importance for the present and future, healthcare innovations have emerged as an important area of research and practice. The Indian innovation ecosystem is a vibrant space and India has emerged as the world’s third-largest startup economy. However, there has been no systematic collation and understanding of the literature on healthcare innovations in the Indian context. This study aims to fill this gap and help understand the existing scope and nature of research on healthcare innovations in India to identify research gaps for future studies.

A scoping review of published peer-reviewed literature from the Scopus database was performed on healthcare innovations in India in the last 26 years (1996-2021). The selected studies were analysed using multidimensional criteria and an iterative inductive approach, followed by a narrative synthesis to present the findings using a multiparadigmatic framework.

The review found that the concept of healthcare innovation was not uniform across these studies. Theory building studies and studies on the healthcare innovation ecosystem and policies have been limited. The studies identified changes in design, services, products, technology, organization, system interaction and conceptual elements as innovations. Healthcare innovations are important in public health, clinical practice, pharmaceuticals, medical devices and Indigenous System of Medicine (ISM), but are affected by the international and national policies affecting the ecosystem. The need for inclusive and convergent innovation as a driver for equity and increasing the translational rate of healthcare technologies also emerges from the analysis. The review identified research gaps and proposed key areas for future research across different domains of healthcare innovation.

Keywords: Scoping review, Health technology, Patent, Transdisciplinary, Ecosystems, Policy, Healthcare systems, Entrepreneurship, COVID-19, Innovation

JEL Classification: O30

Suggested Citation

Mukherjee, Kanchan, Research on Healthcare Innovations in India: Before, During and Beyond COVID-19 (December 14, 2021). Available at SSRN: or

Kanchan Mukherjee (Contact Author)

Tata Institute of Social Sciences

V.N. Purav Marg
Mumbai, 400088

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