Optional Legislation

62 Pages Posted: 5 Jan 2022 Last revised: 13 Oct 2023

See all articles by Jacob Bronsther

Jacob Bronsther

Michigan State University - College of Law

Guha Krishnamurthi

University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Date Written: August 1, 2021


Not since the 19th Century has partisanship been this intense. The only thing that Democrats and Republicans can agree upon, it seems, is that “Washington is broken.” Beyond the chimeras of bipartisanship or enduring one-party rule, this Article proposes a new solution to legislative dysfunction in Washington: optional legislation. Imagine that states could opt in to a federal program—say, universal basic income or Medicare for All—on the condition that they alone foot a higher tax bill to pay for the plan. States that opt out are completely unaffected because they do not have to contribute funds. Given that each party controls its own set of states, optional legislation enables each party to govern at the federal level with a degree of independence from the other. By comparison to nationwide bills that have the support of a single party, optional legislation would not only be more politically viable and resilient, but would also lead to more innovative and democratic policies. Optional bills hypercharge the “laboratories of democracy” afforded by our federal system, given that they enable states to experiment with programming that they would be unable or unwilling to administer on their own. This Article thus presents a new form of federalism engineered for eras of extreme partisan discord. Washington is indeed broken, and optional legislation can help fix it.

Keywords: federalism, legislation, partisanship, democracy, decentralization

Suggested Citation

Bronsther, Jacob and Krishnamurthi, Guha, Optional Legislation (August 1, 2021). 107 Minnesota Law Review 297 (2022), https://minnesotalawreview.org/article/optional-legislation/, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3997178 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3997178

Jacob Bronsther (Contact Author)

Michigan State University - College of Law ( email )

318 Law College Building
East Lansing, MI 48824-1300
United States

Guha Krishnamurthi

University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law ( email )

500 W. Baltimore Street
Baltimore, MD 21201

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