The Effects of School Closures on Homeschooling and Mental Health: Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic

49 Pages Posted: 10 Jan 2022 Last revised: 27 Feb 2022

See all articles by Christos Makridis

Christos Makridis

Stanford University; Columbia University - Columbia Business School; Arizona State University (ASU); Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

Clara Piano

Samford University

Corey DeAngelis

American Federation for Children; Cato Institute; Reason Foundation

Date Written: January 5, 2022


This paper investigates the surge in homeschooling over the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequences of the closure of in-person learning on mental health outcomes. First, we document three new facts about homeschooling: 1) the share of homeschooling households grew from 6.5% in May 2020 to 8.5% in May 2021, reaching a peak of over 15% in August 2020; 2) the state-level share of homeschooling households is positively correlated with GOP voting patterns and negatively correlated with union strength; and 3) parents who homeschool are more likely to be married and have more children, but have lower incomes. Second, we find that 1 percentage point (pp) increase in the share of public school districts that went fully remote is associated with a 0.023pp increase in the probability of adopting homeschooling. Crucially, our identification strategy exploits changes in homeschooling and remote instruction, rather than levels, thereby removing time-invariant heterogeneity across locations. Third, we find that a 1pp rise in fully remote instruction is associated with a 0.102pp, 0.073pp, 0.061pp, and 0.055pp rise in the probability that parents report anxiety, worry, depression, and loss of interest over half the days in the past week. Our results provide new evidence on the evolution of homeschooling during the COVID-19 pandemic and the unintended negative effects of public school closures on the reported mental health of parents in the U.S.

Funding: No funding received for the paper.

Declaration of Interests: We, the authors, declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Keywords: COVID-19, Homeschooling, Hybrid and Remote Instruction, Unions, School Closures

JEL Classification: J13, J21, J22, H75

Suggested Citation

Makridis, Christos and Piano, Clara and DeAngelis, Corey, The Effects of School Closures on Homeschooling and Mental Health: Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic (January 5, 2022). Available at SSRN: or

Christos Makridis (Contact Author)

Stanford University ( email )

Stanford, CA 94305
United States

Columbia University - Columbia Business School ( email )

3022 Broadway
New York, NY 10027
United States

Arizona State University (ASU) ( email )

Farmer Building 440G PO Box 872011
Tempe, AZ 85287
United States

Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ( email )

810 Vermont Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20420
United States

Clara Piano

Samford University ( email )

800 Lakeshore Drive
Birmingham, AL 35229
United States

Corey DeAngelis

American Federation for Children ( email )

1020 19th St NW
Washington, DC 20036
United States

Cato Institute ( email )

1000 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20001-5403
United States

Reason Foundation ( email )

1747 Connecticut Ave NW
Washington, DC 20009
United States

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics