Knowledge and Policy Gaps in Extractive Industries in Kenya

HIPSIR Research Series 2017/12

138 Pages Posted: 7 Mar 2022

Date Written: 2017


On April 2013 Kenya officially announced the discovery of oil discovery and other minerals propelling itself as a new entrant into the fast growing extractive industry in Africa. The oil and gas exploration are at advanced stages and early production of oil could begin in 2018. The revenues from the oil, gas and other valued minerals are expected to make significant contribution to the country’s 2030 Vision. Besides oil, Kenya has significant deposits of “gas, rare earth metals , coal, iron ore, gold, limestone, gypsum, soda ash, gemstones, manganese ore, fluorspar, diatomite, titanium, zircon, chromite, niobium and silica sand.” According to Cortec Mining Kenya Limited, Mrima Hills in Kwale County has largest rare-earth mineral deposits in the world which has a potential in-ground value of up to US$62.4 billion (UNDP, 2014). Among the discovered minerals include titanium (rutile, ilmenite, zircon) at Nguluku and Shimba Hills; gemstones at Kuranze; rare earth elements (niobium, phosphates) at Mrima Hills and Samburu; silica sands at Waa, Tiwi, and Ramisi; zinc, lead and copper at Mkang‘ombe, Mwache, Dumbule, and Dzitenge; baryte at Lunga-lunga; coal at Maji ya Chumvi; sandstones at Mariakani; limestone at Shimoni and Waa; coral rocks at coastline; and a potential for offshore oil and gas (UNDP, 2014). Other minerals include: gold, osmium, palladium, silver, secondary aluminum, iron ore, lead, and steel among others. Kenya has 77 different minerals besides oil and gas.

Suggested Citation

Opongo, Elias, Knowledge and Policy Gaps in Extractive Industries in Kenya (2017). HIPSIR Research Series 2017/12, Available at SSRN: or

Elias Opongo (Contact Author)

Hekima University College


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