Mechanical Testing and Microstructural Analysis of Wire Arc Additively Manufactured Steels

59 Pages Posted: 16 Feb 2022

See all articles by Cheng Huang

Cheng Huang

Imperial College London

Pinelopi Kyvelou

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Ruizhi Zhang

Imperial College London

T. Ben Britton

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Leroy Gardner

Imperial College London - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Abstract

Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a metal 3D printing method that allows the cost-effective and efficient production of large-scale elements, and has thus gained great interest from architects and structural engineers. Integration of this novel technology into the construction industry, however, requires the development of a clear understanding of the mechanical behaviour of WAAM materials. To this end, a comprehensive experimental study into the mechanical properties and microstructure of WAAM plates made of normal- and high-strength steels has been undertaken and is reported herein. A total of 137 as-built and machined tensile coupons were tested, extracted in various directions relative to the print layer orientation from WAAM plates of two nominal thicknesses, built using different deposition strategies. Microstructural characterisation was also performed by means of optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The EBSD analysis revealed a weak crystallographic texture, which explained the observed mechanical properties being almost isotropic. The geometric undulations of the as-built coupons resulted in some reduction in effective mechanical properties and a degree of anisotropy. Overall, the examined WAAM material exhibited consistent mechanical properties, a Young’s modulus comparable to conventionally-produced steels, marginally lower strength, reflecting the slower cooling conditions than is customary, and good ductility.

Keywords: Carbon steel, high strength steel, Metal 3D printing, microstructure, Tensile coupon tests, Wire arc additive manufacturing

Suggested Citation

Huang, Cheng and Kyvelou, Pinelopi and Zhang, Ruizhi and Ben Britton, T. and Gardner, Leroy, Mechanical Testing and Microstructural Analysis of Wire Arc Additively Manufactured Steels. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4004790 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4004790

Cheng Huang (Contact Author)

Imperial College London ( email )

Pinelopi Kyvelou

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Ruizhi Zhang

Imperial College London ( email )

T. Ben Britton

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Leroy Gardner

Imperial College London - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering ( email )

Exhibition Road
London SW7 2AZ
United Kingdom

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