Human Resources in China: The Birth Quota, Returns to Schooling, and Migration

35 Pages Posted: 1 May 2003

See all articles by T. Paul Schultz

T. Paul Schultz

Yale University - Economic Growth Center; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

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Date Written: April 2003

Abstract

Rural elderly have 40% of the income of those in urban areas, spend a larger share of their income on food, are in worse health, work later into their lives, and depend more on their children, lacking pensions and public services. The birth quota since 1980 has particularly restricted the childbearing of rural less educated women, who now face retirement with fewer children for support. Inequality in China can also be traced to increasing returns to schooling, especially beyond secondary school. Government restrictions on rural-urban migration reduce national efficiency, add to the urban-rural wage gap, and increase inequality.

Keywords: Human Capital Returns, Rural-urban Migration, Elderly Poverty, China

JEL Classification: J13, J24, J14

Suggested Citation

Schultz, T. Paul, Human Resources in China: The Birth Quota, Returns to Schooling, and Migration (April 2003). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=402000

T. Paul Schultz (Contact Author)

Yale University - Economic Growth Center ( email )

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IZA Institute of Labor Economics

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