Economic Outcomes for Transgender People and Other Gender Minorities in the United States: First Estimates from a Nationally Representative Sample

49 Pages Posted: 28 Mar 2022

See all articles by Christopher S. Carpenter

Christopher S. Carpenter

Vanderbilt University; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Maxine J. Lee

San Francisco State University

Laura Nettuno

Vanderbilt University

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: February 2022

Abstract

We provide the literature’s first estimates of economic outcomes for transgender people and other gender minorities in the United States using nationally representative data from the Household Pulse Survey. We find that transgender women – individuals who were assigned male at birth but who identify as female – are significantly less likely to be employed, have higher poverty rates, are more likely to have public health insurance, and report greater food insecurity compared to otherwise similar cisgender men. Differences between non-cisgender individuals who were assigned female at birth and cisgender women are smaller. Non-cisgender Black individuals fare significantly worse than non-cisgender white individuals, regardless of sex assigned at birth. Our results demonstrate the precarious economic position of gender minority populations in America.

Keywords: transgender, gender minority, economic outcomes, Household Pulse Survey

JEL Classification: J1

Suggested Citation

Carpenter, Christopher S. and Lee, Maxine and Nettuno, Laura, Economic Outcomes for Transgender People and Other Gender Minorities in the United States: First Estimates from a Nationally Representative Sample (February 2022). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4044700 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4044700

Christopher S. Carpenter

Vanderbilt University ( email )

Box 1819 Station B
Nashville, TN 37235
United States

HOME PAGE: http://https://sites.google.com/site/kittcarpenter/

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Maxine Lee (Contact Author)

San Francisco State University ( email )

1600 Holloway Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94132
United States

Laura Nettuno

Vanderbilt University ( email )

2301 Vanderbilt Place
Nashville, TN 37240
United States

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Downloads
58
Abstract Views
187
rank
449,257
PlumX Metrics