Economic Outcomes for Transgender People and Other Gender Minorities in the United States: First Estimates from a Nationally Representative Sample

54 Pages Posted: 28 Mar 2022 Last revised: 6 Jul 2022

See all articles by Christopher S. Carpenter

Christopher S. Carpenter

Vanderbilt University; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Maxine J. Lee

San Francisco State University

Laura Nettuno

Vanderbilt University

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: June 18, 2022

Abstract

We provide the literature’s first estimates of economic outcomes for transgender people and other gender minorities in the United States using nationally representative data from the US Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey which identifies over 9,400 individuals from 2021-22 who are non-cisgender (i.e., whose current gender does not align with their sex assigned at birth). We find that non-cisgender individuals are significantly less likely to be employed, have higher poverty rates, are more likely to have public health insurance, and report greater food insecurity compared to otherwise similar cisgender individuals. We also find that non-cisgender Black individuals fare significantly worse than non-cisgender white individuals. Our results demonstrate the precarious economic position of gender minority populations in America.

Keywords: transgender, gender minority, LGBT, economic outcomes, Household Pulse Survey

JEL Classification: J1

Suggested Citation

Carpenter, Christopher S. and Lee, Maxine and Nettuno, Laura, Economic Outcomes for Transgender People and Other Gender Minorities in the United States: First Estimates from a Nationally Representative Sample (June 18, 2022). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4044700 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4044700

Christopher S. Carpenter

Vanderbilt University ( email )

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Nashville, TN 37235
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HOME PAGE: http://https://sites.google.com/site/kittcarpenter/

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

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Maxine Lee (Contact Author)

San Francisco State University ( email )

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Laura Nettuno

Vanderbilt University ( email )

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Nashville, TN 37240
United States

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