Combat Without Warfighting: Non-Belligerent Actors and the Russian Invasion of Ukraine

16 Pages Posted: 28 Mar 2022

See all articles by Richard Humphreys

Richard Humphreys

School of Law, Queen's University Belfast

Lauma Paegļkalna

Supreme Court of Latvia

Date Written: March 3, 2022

Abstract

The Russian Federation’s illegal invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, assisted by Belarus, has provoked a range of responses from non-belligerent state and private actors that represent an evolved form of sub-warfighting combat. Going beyond traditional responses such as established types of sanctions, the responses to the invasion have illustrated a wide range of tools available to non-belligerent actors without reaching the threshold of warfighting. Nonetheless these responses fall short of those in other situations of breach of international law, such as arising from apartheid South Africa or North Korea’s nuclear aspirations. There is considerable scope for intensification of such responses and countermeasures.

Keywords: Ukraine, sanctions, countermeasures

JEL Classification: F51, K33

Suggested Citation

Humphreys, Richard and Paegļkalna, Lauma, Combat Without Warfighting: Non-Belligerent Actors and the Russian Invasion of Ukraine (March 3, 2022). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4048994 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4048994

Richard Humphreys (Contact Author)

School of Law, Queen's University Belfast

Main Site Tower, Queen's University Belfast
Belfast, BT7 1NN
United Kingdom

Lauma Paegļkalna

Supreme Court of Latvia

Brīvības bulvāris 36
Centra rajons,
Rīga,, LV-1511,
Latvia

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