Financial Development, Non-Bank E-Money, and Central Bank Digital Currency

52 Pages Posted: 4 Apr 2022 Last revised: 30 Jun 2022

See all articles by Xin Wang

Xin Wang

Nanyang Technological University (NTU) - Division of Banking & Finance

Xiaoxiong Hu

NEOMA Business School

Date Written: March 14, 2022

Abstract

We develop a new framework to examine the effects of retail central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) on financial inclusion and stability, particularly how the results depend on an economy's existing degree of financial development. We demonstrate that when offering CBDCs in underdeveloped economies, some households migrate from cash to CBDCs. However, the competition between CBDCs and non-bank-issued electronic money (e-money) poses a significant threat to disintermediate banks. When offering CBDCs in developed economies, few households migrate from cash to CBDCs. Nevertheless, CBDCs can effectively constrain non-bank e-money and hence strengthening financial stability. Overall, our findings suggest that retail CBDCs can be useful for promoting financial inclusion only in underdeveloped economies and strengthening financial stability in terms of curbing non-bank e-money only in developed ones. An economy needs to consider the motivations and existing degree of financial development when offering CBDCs.

Keywords: central bank digital currency, electronic money, stablecoins, financial inclusion, financial stability, financial development

JEL Classification: D14, E21, E41, E42, E51, E52, G21, G23

Suggested Citation

Wang, Xin and Hu, Xiaoxiong, Financial Development, Non-Bank E-Money, and Central Bank Digital Currency (March 14, 2022). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4052603 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4052603

Xin Wang (Contact Author)

Nanyang Technological University (NTU) - Division of Banking & Finance ( email )

S3-B1B-76 Nanyang Avenue
Singapore, 639798
Singapore
+6593816646 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.financexinwang.com/

Xiaoxiong Hu

NEOMA Business School ( email )

1 rue du Maréchal Juin - BP 215 76825
Mont-Saint-Aignan, 76130
France
(33) 276000633 (Phone)

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