The Vietnamese Entrepreneurship Paradox: How Can Entrepreneurs Thrive Without Political and Economic Freedom?
The Journal of Technology Transfer, (2021), 1-19.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-021-09873-2.
The University of Auckland Business School Research Paper Series
Posted: 18 Mar 2022
Date Written: 2021
Entrepreneurship and democracy are often considered complementary, but recent evidence points to a paradox that entrepreneurial activities have increased in undemocratic contexts. Exploring economic and political freedoms, this paper investigates the development of entrepreneurship in Vietnam, an economy characterised by low economic and very low political freedoms. It suggests changes in economic freedom over time infuence opportunity perceptions and activities more than absolute levels. We identify key aspects of how culture and institutions have changed, which have been conducive to entrepreneurship. Overall, we show how even small increases in economic freedom stimulate entrepreneurship, even in the absence of political freedom. Full paper available at https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-021-09873-2
Keywords: Economic freedom, Political freedom, Democracy, Entrepreneurship, Vietnam
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