Sanctions and the Russian-Ukraine Conflict: A Critical Appraisal

19 Pages Posted: 13 Apr 2022

See all articles by Peter A. G. van Bergeijk

Peter A. G. van Bergeijk

Erasmus University - Institute of Social Studies (ISS)

Date Written: March 15, 2022


This working paper studies the case of the sanctions against the Russian war with the Ukraine in 2022 against the background of four major and well-documented historical sanction episodes: (a) the anti-Apartheid sanctions of the 1980s, (b) the sanctions against the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait in 1990, (c) the sanctions against Iranian nuclear capabilities and (d) the US and EU sanctions against the Russian annexation of the Crimea. Two cases (South-Africa and Iran) have a comparatively low ex ante probability of success based on pre-sanction proportional trade linkage and regime type (the autocracy score). The key to understanding their success is in the banking channel (debt-crisis and SWIFT sanctions) and the behaviour of the private sector (divestment and over-compliance). The failure of the sanctions against Iraq underscores the importance of regime type and the need for a viable exit strategy and shows that some decision-makers cannot be influenced with economic hardship. The 2014 sanctions against Russia illustrate the comparative vulnerability of the European democracies and their weakness in organizing comprehensive sanctions that bite. Given the increased Russian resilience, the increasingly autocratic nature of President Putin’s government, the credibility of his 2014 tit-for-tat strategy and the failure of European democracies to implement appropriate strong and broad based measures smart and targeted sanctions are unlikely to influence the Kremlin’s calculus. The European Union could only influence that calculus by restoring its reputation as a credible applicant of strong sanctions, including an embargo on capital goods and a boycott of Russian energy.

Keywords: Sanctions, Russia, Ukraine, South Africa, Apartheid, Iran, Iraq, Crimea, Comparative case study

JEL Classification: F51

Suggested Citation

van Bergeijk, Peter A.G., Sanctions and the Russian-Ukraine Conflict: A Critical Appraisal (March 15, 2022). Available at SSRN: or

Peter A.G. Van Bergeijk (Contact Author)

Erasmus University - Institute of Social Studies (ISS) ( email )

PO Box 29776
2502 LT The Hague, 2518 AX


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