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Defining Microglial States and Nomenclature: A Roadmap to 2030

44 Pages Posted: 23 Mar 2022 Publication Status: Published

See all articles by Rosa Paolicelli

Rosa Paolicelli

University of Lausanne - Department of Biomedical Sciences

Amanda Sierra

Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience

Beth Stevens

Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT - Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research

Marie-Eve Tremblay

University of Victoria; Université Laval - Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval

Adriano Aguzzi

University of Zurich - Institute of Neuropathology

Bahareh Ajami

Oregon Health and Science University - Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology

Ido Amit

Weizmann Institute of Science - Department of Immunology

Etienne Audinat

University of Montpellier - Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle (IGF)

Ingo Bechmann

University of Leipzig - Institute of Anatomy

Mariko Bennett

University of Pennsylvania - Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Frederick Bennett

University of Pennsylvania - Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Alain Bessis

École Normale Supérieure (ENS)

Knut Biber

AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG - Neuroscience Discovery

Staci Bilbo

Duke University - Department of Psychology and Neuroscience

Mathew Blurton-Jones

University of California, Irvine - Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

Erik Boddeke

University of Groningen - Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells & Systems

Dora Brites

University of Lisbon - Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa)

Bert Brône

Hasselt University - Biomedical Research Institute

Guy C. Brown

University of Cambridge - Department of Biochemistry

Oleg Butovsky

Harvard University - Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases

Monica J. Carson

University of California, Riverside (UCR) - Center for Glial-Neuronal Interactions

Bernardo Castellano

Fisiología e Inmunología - Unidad de Histología Medica

Marco Colonna

Washington University in St. Louis - Department of Pathology and Immunology

Sally A. Cowley

University of Oxford - James and Lillian Martin Centre for Stem Cell Research

Colm Cunningham

Trinity College (Dublin) - School of Biochemistry and Immunology

Dimitrios Davalos

Cleveland Clinic - Department of Neurosciences

Philip L. De Jager

Columbia University - Center for Translational and Systems Neuroimmunology

Bart De Strooper

University College London - Bart de Strooper

Ádám Dénes

Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS) - “Momentum” Laboratory of Neuroimmunology

Bart J.L. Eggen

University of Groningen - Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells & Systems

Ukpong Eyo

Mayo Clinic - Department of Neurology

Elena Galea

Autonomous University of Barcelona - Institut de Neurociències and Departament de Bioquímica

Sonia Garel

École Normale Supérieure - PSL Research University - Institute of Biology of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS)

Florent Ginhoux

Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) - Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN)

Christopher K. Glass

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine

Ozgun Gokce

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU) - Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research

Diego Gomez-Nicola

University of Southampton - School of Biological Sciences

Berta González

Fisiología e Inmunología - Unidad de Histología Medica

Siamon Gordon

University of Oxford - Sir William Dunn School of Pathology

Manuel B. Graeber

The University of Sydney - Ken Parker Brain Tumour Research Laboratories, Brain and Mind Centre

Andrew D. Greenhalgh

The University of Manchester - Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation

Pierre Gressens

University of Paris - INSERM

Melanie Greter

University of Zurich - Institute of Experimental Immunology

David H. Gutmann

Washington University in St. Louis - School of Medicine

Christian Haass

Universite du Luxembourg - Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine

Michael T. Heneka

University of Bonn - Department of Neurodegenerative Disease and Gerontopsychiatry

Frank Heppner

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin - Institute for Neuropathology

Soyon Hong

University College London - UK Dementia Research Institute

Steffen Jung

Weizmann Institute of Science - Department of Immunology

Helmut Kettenmann

Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres - Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine

Jonathan Kipnis

University of Virginia - Department of Neuroscience; University of Virginia - Center for Brain Immunology and Glia

Ryuta Koyama

University of Tokyo - Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology

Greg Lemke

Salk Institute for Biological Studies - Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory

Marina Lynch

Trinity College (Dublin) - Institute of Neuroscience

Ania Majewska

University of Rochester - Department of Neuroscience

Marzia Malcangio

King’s College London - Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases

Tarja Malm

University of Eastern Finland - A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences

Renzo Mancuso

University of Antwerp - Department of Biomedical Sciences

Michela Matteoli

Humanitas University - Department of Biomedical Sciences

Barry McColl

UK Dementia Research Institute

Veronique E. Miron

University of Edinburgh - MRC Centre for Reproductive Health

Anna Victoria Molofsky

University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)

Michelle Monje

University of California, Berkeley - Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)

Eva Mracsko

Discovery Pharmacology - Roche Innovation Center Zurich

Agnes Nadjar

University of Bordeaux - Neurocentre Magendie

Jonas J. Neher

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE)

Urte Neniskyte

Vilnius University - VU LSC-EMBL Partnership for Genome Editing Technologies

Harald Neumann

University of Bonn - Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology

Mami Noda

Kyushu University - Laboratory of Pathophysiology

Bo Peng

Fudan University - Department of Neurosurgery

Francesca Peri

University of Zurich - Department of Molecular Life Sciences

V. Hugh Perry

UK Dementia Research Institute

Phillip G. Popovich

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Neuroscience

Josef Priller

Technische Universität München (TUM) - Department of Psychiatry & Psychotherapy

Davide Ragozzino

Sapienza University of Rome - Department of Physiology and Pharmacology

Richard M. Ransohoff

Third Rock Ventures

Michael W. Salter

University of Toronto - The Hospital for Sick Children - SickKids

Anne Schaefer

Mount Sinai Health System - Nash Department of Neuroscience

Dorothy P. Schafer

University of Massachusetts Worcester - Department of Neurobiology

Michal Schwartz

Weizmann Institute of Science - Department of Neurobiology

Mikael Simons

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) - Institute of Neuronal Cell Biology

Wolfgang J. Streit

University of Florida - Division of Neuroscience

Tuan Leng Tay

University of Freiburg - Faculty of Biology

Li-Huei Tsai

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory

Alexei Verkhratsky

Celica Biomedical

Rommy von Bernhardi

Universidad San Sebastian - Faculty of Health Sciences

Hiroaki Wake

Nagoya University - Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology

Valerie Wittamer

Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie Humaine et Moléculaire (IRIBHM)

Susanne A. Wolf

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Long-Jun Wu

Mayo Clinic - Department of Neurology

Tony Wyss-Coray

Stanford University - Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences

More...

Abstract

Microglial research has been constrained by a rolling series of dichotomies such as “resting versus activated” or “M1 versus M2”. This Manichean perspective of good or bad microglia is in sharp contrast with the wide repertoire of microglial functions, exerted from development to aging and diseases, brought to light in recent years. New designations continuously arising in the attempt to describe different microglial states from transcriptomics or other readouts may thus easily lead to the misleading, although unintentional, coupling of categories and functions. To address these issues, we assembled a group of multidisciplinary experts in microglial research and discussed our current understanding of microglial states as a dynamic concept. In this white paper, we provide a series of recommendations on the use of microglial nomenclature for researchers, reviewers and editors, including neophytes. We discuss gaps in knowledge and future challenges to tackle, providing a conceptual framework to understand microglial states.

Suggested Citation

Paolicelli, Rosa and Sierra, Amanda and Stevens, Beth and Tremblay, Marie-Eve and Aguzzi, Adriano and Ajami, Bahareh and Amit, Ido and Audinat, Etienne and Bechmann, Ingo and Bennett, Mariko and Bennett, Frederick and Bessis, Alain and Biber, Knut and Bilbo, Staci and Blurton-Jones, Mathew and Boddeke, Erik and Brites, Dora and Brône, Bert and Brown, Guy C. and Butovsky, Oleg and Carson, Monica J. and Castellano, Bernardo and Colonna, Marco and Cowley, Sally A. and Cunningham, Colm and Davalos, Dimitrios and De Jager, Philip L. and De Strooper, Bart and Dénes, Ádám and Eggen, Bart J.L. and Eyo, Ukpong and Galea, Elena and Garel, Sonia and Ginhoux, Florent and Glass, Christopher K. and Gokce, Ozgun and Gomez-Nicola, Diego and González, Berta and Gordon, Siamon and Graeber, Manuel B. and Greenhalgh, Andrew D. and Gressens, Pierre and Greter, Melanie and Gutmann, David H. and Haass, Christian and Heneka, Michael T. and Heppner, Frank and Hong, Soyon and Jung, Steffen and Kettenmann, Helmut and Kipnis, Jonathan and Koyama, Ryuta and Lemke, Greg and Lynch, Marina and Majewska, Ania and Malcangio, Marzia and Malm, Tarja and Mancuso, Renzo and Matteoli, Michela and McColl, Barry and Miron, Veronique E. and Molofsky, Anna Victoria and Monje, Michelle and Mracsko, Eva and Nadjar, Agnes and Neher, Jonas J. and Neniskyte, Urte and Neumann, Harald and Noda, Mami and Peng, Bo and Peri, Francesca and Perry, V. Hugh and Popovich, Phillip G. and Priller, Josef and Ragozzino, Davide and Ransohoff, Richard M. and Salter, Michael W. and Schaefer, Anne and Schafer, Dorothy P. and Schwartz, Michal and Simons, Mikael and Streit, Wolfgang J. and Tay, Tuan Leng and Tsai, Li-Huei and Verkhratsky, Alexei and von Bernhardi, Rommy and Wake, Hiroaki and Wittamer, Valerie and Wolf, Susanne A. and Wu, Long-Jun and Wyss-Coray, Tony, Defining Microglial States and Nomenclature: A Roadmap to 2030. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4065080 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4065080
This version of the paper has not been formally peer reviewed.

Rosa Paolicelli (Contact Author)

University of Lausanne - Department of Biomedical Sciences ( email )

Lausanne
Switzerland

Amanda Sierra

Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience ( email )

Parque Tecnológico UPV/EHU, edificio sede, planta
Leioa, Bizkaia 48940
Spain

Beth Stevens

Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT - Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research ( email )

Cambridge, MA
United States

Marie-Eve Tremblay

University of Victoria

3800 Finnerty Rd
Victoria, V8P 5C2
Canada

Université Laval - Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval ( email )

Québec
Canada

Adriano Aguzzi

University of Zurich - Institute of Neuropathology ( email )

Switzerland

Bahareh Ajami

Oregon Health and Science University - Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology

3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Rd.
Portland, OR 97201
United States

Ido Amit

Weizmann Institute of Science - Department of Immunology

Rehovot
Israel

Etienne Audinat

University of Montpellier - Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle (IGF)

Montpellier
France

Ingo Bechmann

University of Leipzig - Institute of Anatomy ( email )

Germany

Mariko Bennett

University of Pennsylvania - Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard
Philadelphia, PA 19104-4399
United States

Frederick Bennett

University of Pennsylvania - Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard
Philadelphia, PA 19104-4399
United States

Alain Bessis

École Normale Supérieure (ENS)

45 rue d’Ulm
Paris Cedex 05, F-75230
France

Knut Biber

AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG - Neuroscience Discovery

Ludwigshafen
Germany

Staci Bilbo

Duke University - Department of Psychology and Neuroscience ( email )

Durham, NC 27708
United States

Mathew Blurton-Jones

University of California, Irvine - Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

Qureshey Research Lab
506 C Student Center
Irvine, CA 92697
United States

Erik Boddeke

University of Groningen - Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells & Systems

Groningen
Netherlands

Dora Brites

University of Lisbon - Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa)

Lisbon
Portugal

Bert Brône

Hasselt University - Biomedical Research Institute ( email )

Diepenbeek
Belgium

Guy C. Brown

University of Cambridge - Department of Biochemistry

80 Tennis Court Road
Cambridge, CB2 1GA
United Kingdom

Oleg Butovsky

Harvard University - Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases

Boston, MA
United States

Monica J. Carson

University of California, Riverside (UCR) - Center for Glial-Neuronal Interactions

Riverside, CA
United States

Bernardo Castellano

Fisiología e Inmunología - Unidad de Histología Medica

Barcelona
Spain

Marco Colonna

Washington University in St. Louis - Department of Pathology and Immunology ( email )

One Brookings Drive
Campus Box 1208
Saint Louis, MO 63130-4899
United States

Sally A. Cowley

University of Oxford - James and Lillian Martin Centre for Stem Cell Research

Oxford
United Kingdom

Colm Cunningham

Trinity College (Dublin) - School of Biochemistry and Immunology

Dublin
Ireland

Dimitrios Davalos

Cleveland Clinic - Department of Neurosciences

Cleveland, OH
United States

Philip L. De Jager

Columbia University - Center for Translational and Systems Neuroimmunology ( email )

630 West 168th Street, 3rd Floor, Suite 3-470
New York, NY 10032
United States

Bart De Strooper

University College London - Bart de Strooper ( email )

London
United Kingdom

Ádám Dénes

Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS) - “Momentum” Laboratory of Neuroimmunology ( email )

Orszaghaz utca 30.
Budapest, H-1502
Hungary

Bart J.L. Eggen

University of Groningen - Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells & Systems

Groningen
Netherlands

Ukpong Eyo

Mayo Clinic - Department of Neurology ( email )

200 First Street S.W
Rochester, MN 55905
United States

Elena Galea

Autonomous University of Barcelona - Institut de Neurociències and Departament de Bioquímica

Barcelona
Spain

Sonia Garel

École Normale Supérieure - PSL Research University - Institute of Biology of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS)

Paris
France

Florent Ginhoux

Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) - Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN) ( email )

1 Fusionopolis Way
#16-16 Connexis
Singapore, 138632
Singapore

Christopher K. Glass

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine ( email )

La Jolla, CA 92037
United States

Ozgun Gokce

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU) - Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research

Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1
Munich, Bavaria 80539
Germany

Diego Gomez-Nicola

University of Southampton - School of Biological Sciences ( email )

Southampton
United Kingdom

Berta González

Fisiología e Inmunología - Unidad de Histología Medica

Barcelona
Spain

Siamon Gordon

University of Oxford - Sir William Dunn School of Pathology

South Parks Road
Oxford, OX1 3RE
United Kingdom

Manuel B. Graeber

The University of Sydney - Ken Parker Brain Tumour Research Laboratories, Brain and Mind Centre

Camperdown
Australia

Andrew D. Greenhalgh

The University of Manchester - Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation

United Kingdom

Pierre Gressens

University of Paris - INSERM

Paris
France

Melanie Greter

University of Zurich - Institute of Experimental Immunology

Switzerland

David H. Gutmann

Washington University in St. Louis - School of Medicine

660 S. Euclid Ave., Third Floor McMillan
St. Louis, MO 63110-1010
United States

Christian Haass

Universite du Luxembourg - Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine

2 Avenue de l'Université
Esch-sur-Alzette
Luxembourg

Michael T. Heneka

University of Bonn - Department of Neurodegenerative Disease and Gerontopsychiatry

Bonn, 53127
Germany

Frank Heppner

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin - Institute for Neuropathology

Charitéplatz 1
Berlin, 10117
Germany

Soyon Hong

University College London - UK Dementia Research Institute ( email )

London
United Kingdom

Steffen Jung

Weizmann Institute of Science - Department of Immunology ( email )

Rehovot
Israel

Helmut Kettenmann

Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres - Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine

Berlin
Germany

Jonathan Kipnis

University of Virginia - Department of Neuroscience

1400 University Ave
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States

University of Virginia - Center for Brain Immunology and Glia

1400 University Ave
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States

Ryuta Koyama

University of Tokyo - Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology

Tokyo
Japan

Greg Lemke

Salk Institute for Biological Studies - Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory ( email )

La Jolla, CA
United States

Marina Lynch

Trinity College (Dublin) - Institute of Neuroscience

Dublin
Ireland

Ania Majewska

University of Rochester - Department of Neuroscience

Rochester, NY 14642
United States

Marzia Malcangio

King’s College London - Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases

London
United Kingdom

Tarja Malm

University of Eastern Finland - A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences ( email )

Finland

Renzo Mancuso

University of Antwerp - Department of Biomedical Sciences

Antwerp
Belgium

Michela Matteoli

Humanitas University - Department of Biomedical Sciences

Milan
Italy

Barry McColl

UK Dementia Research Institute

UCL Cruciform Building
Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Veronique E. Miron

University of Edinburgh - MRC Centre for Reproductive Health

United Kingdom

Anna Victoria Molofsky

University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)

San Francisco, CA CA
United States

Michelle Monje

University of California, Berkeley - Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) ( email )

310 Barrows Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720
United States

Eva Mracsko

Discovery Pharmacology - Roche Innovation Center Zurich

Switzerland

Agnes Nadjar

University of Bordeaux - Neurocentre Magendie

France

Jonas J. Neher

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE)

Venusberg-Campus 1, Building 99
Bonn, 53127
Germany

Urte Neniskyte

Vilnius University - VU LSC-EMBL Partnership for Genome Editing Technologies

Vilnius
Lithuania

Harald Neumann

University of Bonn - Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology

Bonn
Germany

Mami Noda

Kyushu University - Laboratory of Pathophysiology ( email )

Fukuoka
Japan

Bo Peng

Fudan University - Department of Neurosurgery

Shanghai, 200040
China

Francesca Peri

University of Zurich - Department of Molecular Life Sciences

Zurich
Switzerland

V. Hugh Perry

UK Dementia Research Institute

UCL Cruciform Building
Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Phillip G. Popovich

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Neuroscience ( email )

United States

Josef Priller

Technische Universität München (TUM) - Department of Psychiatry & Psychotherapy

Munich
Germany

Davide Ragozzino

Sapienza University of Rome - Department of Physiology and Pharmacology

Rome
Italy

Richard M. Ransohoff

Third Rock Ventures ( email )

United States

Michael W. Salter

University of Toronto - The Hospital for Sick Children - SickKids

686 Bay Street Toronto,
Toronto, ON M5G 0A4
Canada

Anne Schaefer

Mount Sinai Health System - Nash Department of Neuroscience

New York, NY
United States

Dorothy P. Schafer

University of Massachusetts Worcester - Department of Neurobiology

364 Plantation 8 Street
Worcester, MA 01605
United States

Michal Schwartz

Weizmann Institute of Science - Department of Neurobiology

Rehovot
Israel

Mikael Simons

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) - Institute of Neuronal Cell Biology

Munich
Germany

Wolfgang J. Streit

University of Florida - Division of Neuroscience

Gainesville, FL 32610
United States

Tuan Leng Tay

University of Freiburg - Faculty of Biology

Schänzlestr. 1
Freiburg, 79104
Germany

Li-Huei Tsai

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory ( email )

United States

Alexei Verkhratsky

Celica Biomedical ( email )

Rommy Von Bernhardi

Universidad San Sebastian - Faculty of Health Sciences

Santiago
Chile

Hiroaki Wake

Nagoya University - Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology

Japan

Valerie Wittamer

Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie Humaine et Moléculaire (IRIBHM)

Brussels
Belgium

Susanne A. Wolf

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Germany

Long-Jun Wu

Mayo Clinic - Department of Neurology

200 First Street S.W
Rochester, MN 55905
United States

Tony Wyss-Coray

Stanford University - Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences

Room M016
Stanford, CA 94305
United States

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