Force Generation of KIF1C Is Impaired by Pathogenic Mutations
25 Pages Posted: 4 Apr 2022 Publication Status: PublishedMore...
Intracellular transport is essential for neuronal function and survival. The most effective plus end-directed neuronal transporter is the kinesin-3 KIF1C, which transports large secretory vesicles and endosomes. Mutations in KIF1C cause hereditary spastic paraplegia and cerebellar dysfunction in human patients. In contrast to other kinesin-3s, KIF1C is a stable dimer and a highly processive motor in its native state. Here we establish a baseline for the single molecule mechanics of Kif1C. We show that full length KIF1C molecules can processively step against the load of an optical trap and reach average stall forces of 3.7 pN. Compared to kinesin-1, KIF1C has a higher propensity to slip backwards under load, which results in a lower maximal single molecule force. However, KIF1C remains attached to the microtubule while slipping backwards and re-engages quickly consistent with its super-processivity. Two pathogenic mutations P176L and R169W that cause hereditary spastic paraplegia in humans maintain fast, processive single molecule motility in vitro, but with decreased run length and slightly increased unloaded velocity compared to the wildtype motor. Under load in an optical trap, force generation by these mutants is severely reduced. In cells, the same mutants are impaired in producing sufficient force to efficiently relocate organelles. Our results show how its mechanics supports KIF1C’s role as an intracellular transporter and explain how pathogenic mutations at the microtubule-binding interface of KIF1C impair the cellular function of these long-distance transporters and result in neuronal disease.
Keywords: molecular motor, kinesin, KIF1C, optical trap, hereditary spastic paraplegia, intracellular transport, single molecule force, microtubule binding, kinesin-3
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