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Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab for Treatment of Hospitalised COVID-19 Patients: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Phase 3 Trial

35 Pages Posted: 22 Apr 2022

See all articles by Thomas L. Holland

Thomas L. Holland

Duke University - Division of Infectious Diseases

Adit A. Ginde

University of Colorado School of Medicine

Roger Paredes

Hospital Germans Trias y Pujol (ICO-IJC) - Institut de Recerca de la Sida. IrsiCaixa; Autonomous University of Barcelona

Thomas A. Murray

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - Division of Biostatistics

Nicole Engen

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - School of Public Health

Greg Grandits

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - School of Public Health

Andrew Vekstein

University of Florida - Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

Noel Ivey

Duke University - Department of Medicine

Ahmad Mourad

Duke University - Department of Medicine

Uriel Sandkovsky

Baylor University - Division Infectious Diseases

Robert L. Gottlieb

Albert Einstein Medical Center - Institute for Heart and Vascular Disease

Mezgebe Berhe

Baylor University - Baylor Scott & White Health Medical Center - Temple

Mamta Jain

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center - Department of Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases

Rubria Marines-Price

Stanford University - Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine

Barbine Tchamba Agbor Agbor

Stanford University - Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine

Lourdes Mateu

Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol

Sergio Espana-Cueto

Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol

Gemma Llados

Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol

Eleftherios Mylonakis

Brown University - Infectious Diseases Division

Ralph Rogers

Stanford University - Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

Fadi Shehadeh

St Joseph’s Hospital - The Division of Infectious Diseases

Michael R. Filbin

Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology - Broad Institute of MIT Harvard

Kathryn A. Hibbert

Massachusetts General Hospital

Kami Kim

University of South Florida

Thanh Tran

University of South Florida

Peter E. Morris

University of Kentucky

Evan P. Cassity

University of Kentucky

Barbara Trautner

Baylor University - Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Lavannya M. Pandit

Baylor University - Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Kirk U. Knowlton

Intermountain Medical Center - Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute

Lindsay Leither

Intermountain Medical Center

Michael A. Matthay

University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) - Cardiovascular Research Institute

Angela J. Rogers

St Joseph’s Hospital - The Division of Infectious Diseases

Wonder Drake

Tennessee Valley Healthcare System VA Medical Center

Beatrice Jones

Tennessee Valley Healthcare System VA Medical Center

Garyfallia Poulakou

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - Laiko General Hospital

Konstantinos N. Syrigos

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - Laiko General Hospital

Eduardo Fernandez-Cruz

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón

Marisa Di Natale

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón

Eyad Almasri

University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) - Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

Leire Balerdi-Sarasola

Hospital Clinic of Barcelona

Sanjay R. Bhagani

Government of the United Kingdom - Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust

Katherine L. Boyle

Harvard University - Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Jonathan D. Casey

Vanderbilt University - Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

Peter Chen

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

David J. Douin

University of Colorado School of Medicine

D. Clark Files

Wake Forest University - Section for Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy, and Immunologic Diseases

Huldrych F. Günthard

University of Zurich - Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology

R. Duncan Hite

University of Cincinnati - Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

Robert C. Hyzy

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Medical School, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

Akram Khan

Northwell Health - Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine

Moses Kibirige

Masaka Regional Referral Hospital

Robert Kidega

Gulu Regional Referral Hospital

Ivan Kimuli

Makerere University

Francis Kiweewa

Makerere University

Jens Ulrik Stæhr Jensen

University of Copenhagen - Department of Clinical Medicine

Bradley G. Leshnower

Emory University

Joseph K. Lutaakome

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - Uganda Research Unit

Prasad Manian

Baylor College of Medicine

Vidya Menon

New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation

Jose Luis Morales-Rull

Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova

Darragh O'Mahony

Swedish Medical Center

J. Scott Overcash

Velocity Clinical Research

Srikant Ramachandruni

Texas A&M University- Corpus Christi

Jay S. Steingrub

Baystate Medical Center

Hassan S. Taha

Cotton University

Michael Waters

Universidad Linda Vista

Barnaby E. Young

National Centre for Infectious Diseases, Singapore

Andrew N. Phillips

University College London - Institute for Global Health

Daniel D. Murray

University of Copenhagen - Rigshospitalet

Tomas O. Jensen

University of Copenhagen - Rigshospitalet

Maria L. Padilla

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

David Sahner

Tetracore, Inc. Rockville

Katy Shaw-Saliba

National Institutes of Health - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Robin L. Dewar

Government of the United States of America - Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

Marc Teitelbaum

Leidos Inc.

Ven Natarajan

Government of the United States of America - Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

M. Tauseef Rehman

Government of the United States of America - Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

Sarah Pett

University College London

Fleur Hudson

University College London

Giota Touloumi

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Students

Samuel M. Brown

Intermountain Medical Center

Wesley H. Self

Vanderbilt University Medical Center - Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research

Christina C. Chang

Harvard University - Massachusetts General Hospital

Adriana Sanchez

Government of the United States of America - Washington DC VA Medical Center

Amy C. Weintrob

Government of the United States of America - Washington DC VA Medical Center

Timothy Hatlen

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center

Birgit Grund

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - School of Statistics

Shweta Sharma

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - School of Public Health

Cavan S. Reilly

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - School of Public Health

Pedro Garbes

AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals - AstraZeneca R&D

Mark T. Esser

AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals - AstraZeneca R&D

Alison Templeton

AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals - AstraZeneca R&D

Abdel G. Babiker

University College London

Victoria J. Davey

Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

Annetine C. Gelijns

Mount Sinai Health System - Department of Population Health Science and Policy

Elizabeth S. Higgs

National Institutes of Health - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Virginia Kan

Government of the United States of America - Washington DC VA Medical Center

Gail Matthews

University of New South Wales

B. Taylor Thompson

Massachusetts General Hospital

James D. Neaton

University of Minnesota

H. Clifford Lane

National Institutes of Health - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Jens Lundgren

University of Copenhagen - Centre of Excellence for Health, Immunity and Infections CHIP

More...

Abstract

Background: Tixagevimab/cilgavimab is a neutralising monoclonal antibody combination hypothesized to improve outcomes for hospitalised COVID-19 patients.

Methods: In a phase 3, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, adults hospitalised for COVID-19 at 81 sites on four continents were assigned to receive intravenous tixagevimab 300 mg/cilgavimab 300 mg or placebo, in addition to remdesivir and other standard care. The primary outcome was time to sustained recovery through day 90, defined as 14 consecutive days at home after hospital discharge, with co-primary analyses for the full cohort and for participants who were neutralising antibody-negative at baseline. Key secondary outcomes included 90-day mortality and a composite safety outcome (death, serious adverse events, organ failure, and serious co-infection) through day 90. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed in the modified intention-to-treat population, defined as participants who received a complete or partial infusion of tixagevimab/cilgavimab or placebo. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04501978.

Findings: From February 10 to September 30, 2021, 1455 patients were randomised and 1417 in the primary modified intention-to-treat population were infused with tixagevimab/cilgavimab (n=710) or placebo (n=707). By day 90, sustained recovery was achieved by 617 (87%) tixagevimab/cilgavimab and 595 (84%) placebo group participants in the full cohort (rate ratio 1.08; 95%CI, 0.97-1.20; p=0.21). Results were similar in the seronegative subgroup (rate ratio 1.14; 95%CI, 0.97-1.34; p=0.13). Mortality was lower in the tixagevimab/cilgavimab (61 [8.6%]) versus placebo (86 [12.2%]) group (hazard ratio 0.70; 95%CI, 0.50-0.97; p=0.03). The composite safety outcome occurred in 178 (25%) tixagevimab/cilgavimab and 212 (30%) placebo group participants (hazard ratio 0.83, 95%CI 0.68-1.01; p=0.06). Serious adverse events occurred in 34 (4.8%) tixagevimab/cilgavimab and 38 (5.4%) placebo group participants.

Interpretation: Among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 receiving remdesivir and other standard care, tixagevimab/cilgavimab did not improve the primary outcome of time to sustained recovery but was safe and mortality was lower.

Trial Registration: This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04501978.

Funding: Supported by the U.S. Operation Warp Speed program, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and Leidos Biomedical Research for the INSIGHT Network, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the Research Triangle Institute for the Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury (PETAL) Network and the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network (CTSN), the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, and grants from the governments of Denmark (no. 126 from the National Research Foundation), Australia (from the National Health and Medical Research Council), the United Kingdom (MRC_UU_12023/23 from the Medical Research Council), and Singapore (COVID19RF-005 from the National Medical Research Council). The research was, in part, funded by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Agreement 1OT2HL156812-01 and National Cancer Institute (NCI) contract 75N91019D00024, task order number 75N91020F00039.

Declaration of Interest: TLH reports consulting fees from Lysovant, royalties for topic authorship, and participation on a Staphylococcus Aureus Network Adaptive Platform (SNAP) Trial Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), outside of the submitted work. AAG reports grants from US National Institutes of Health (NIH) during the conduct of the study, grants from US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), US Department of Defense (DOD), Abbvie, and Faron Pharmaceuticals, and participation on a NIH DSMB, outside of the submitted work. RP reports grants from Gilead, ViiV, and MSD and consulting fees from Gilead, ViiV, MSD, Theratechnologies, and Eli Lilly, outside of the submitted work. TAM reports grants from National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, and Leidos, outside of the submitted work. GAG reports partial salary support from NIH through the University of Minnesota during the conduct of the study. US reports grants from ViiV, Cytodyn, NIAID, and Cardiothoracic Surgical Trial Network (CTSN), consulting fees from ViiV and Shionogi, and payment for educational events from Paratek and Shionogi, outside of the submitted work. RLG reports contracts from Regeneron, consulting fees from Gilead and GSK Pharmaceuticals, participation on advisory boards for Eli Lilly, Gilead, GSK, Johnson and Johnson, Roche/Genentech, and Kinevant Sciences, stock in AbCellera, and receipt of drugs from Gilead, outside of the submitted work. MKJ reports grants from Gilead, participation on an advisory board for Gilead, and a Board of Director position with HIV Medication Association, outside of the submitted work. LM reports payment for educational events from Merck, travel support from Merck and Gilead, and participation on an advisory board for Merck, outside of the submitted work. EM reports grants from NIAID and NIH, outside of the submitted work. KK reports grants and contracts with NIH, Regeneron, Abbott, Pfizer, Romark, and Raisonance, consulting fees from Regeneron, travel support from Sanford Guide and Burroughs Wellcome Fund, patent pending for 3D swabs, and leadership positions at Sanford Guide and Burroughs Wellcome Fund, outside of the submitted work. PEM reports grants from NHLBI and NIH during the conduct of the study and grants and contracts from NHLBI and NIH and consulting fees from Dompe, Medtronic, and Boerhinger Ingelheim, outside of the submitted work. BT reports grants from VA Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center during the conduct of the study and grants and consulting fees from Genentech, outside of the study. KUK reports grants from NIH during the conduct of the study. MAM reports grants from NIH, DOD, California Institute of Regenerative Medicine, Roche-Genentech, and Quantum Therapeutics and consulting fees from Novartis, Johnson and Johnson, Citius Pharmaceuticals, Pilant Therapeutics, and Gilead, outside of the submitted work. GP reports consulting fees from Menarini, Pfizer, MSD, and Gilead, payment for education events from Pfizer, MSD, Astra-Zeneca, and Gilead, and participation on advisory boards for Pfizer, Gilead, and MSD, outside of the submitted work. KNS reports consulting fees from Roche, Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS), Amgen, and MSD, outside of the submitted work. SRB reports consulting fees from Gilead, MSD, and GSK, payment for educational events from Gilead and MSD, and participation on advisory boards for Gilead, MSD, Pfizer, Roche, and ViiV, outside of the submitted work. JDC reports grants from NIH, outside of the submitted work. PC reports grants from NIH during the conduct of the study and grants from Eli Lilly, Regeneron, Gilead, consulting fees from Eli Lilly, Regeneron, and Gilead, and payment for education events from Frontier Collaborative, Physician Education Resource, Rockpointe, CME Outfitter, outside of the submitted work. DJD reports grants from NIH during the conduct of the study. DCF reports grants from NIH during the conduct of the study, grants from NIH and CDC, consulting fees from Cytovale, and participation on DSMB for Medpace, outside of the submitted work. HFG reports grants from Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss HIV Cohort Study, Gilead, Yvonne Jacob Foundation, and NIH and participation on advisory boards for Merck, Gilead, ViiV, Janssen, and Novartis, outside of the submitted work. RDH reports grants from NHLBI, Airway Therapeutics, Incyte Corporation, and Kiniksa Pharmaceuticals and participation on a NIH DSMB outside of the submitted work. AK reports grants from United Therapeutics, Johnson & Johnson, Eli Lilly, Astra-Zeneca, and 4DMedical, outside of the submitted work. JSO reports grants from NIH during the conduct of the study. JSS reports grants from NIH during the conduct of the study. BEY reports consulting fees from Gilead and Novacyte and payment for educational events from Astra-Zeneca, Gilead, Sanofi, and Roche, outside of the submitted work. ANP reports grants from Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), Wellcome Trust, and National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) and consulting fees from BMGF, outside of the submitted work. DDM reports support from DNRF126 during the conduct of the study. MLP reports grants from Boehringer-Ingelheim, payment for authorship from Genentech and France Foundation, and travel support from Eastern Pulmonary Conference, outside of the submitted work. DS reports salary support from NIH through Axle Informatics during the conduct of the study and leadership position for EigenMed, outside of the submitted work. VN reports grants from NIH during the conduct of the study. SLP reports grants from the University of Minnesota during the conduct of the study and grants from Gilead, ViiV, Janssen, European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP), Medical Reserve Corps (MRC), and NIHR, and participation on a NIHR DSMB, outside of the submitted work. GT reports grants from University College London (UCL), outside of the submitted work. SMB reports grants from NIH during the conduct of the study and grants from NIH and participation on a DSMB for Hamilton, outside of the submitted work. WHS reports grants from NIH and NHLBI during the conduct of the study. BG reports grants from NIH during the conduct of the study. SS reports grants from NIH, outside of the conduct of the study. CSR reports grants from NIH during the conduct of the study. PG reports being an employee of AstraZeneca, being a full member of Academia de Medicina, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and stock ownership at Takeda. MTE reports being an employee of and stock ownership at AstraZeneca. AT reports being an employee of AstraZeneca. AGB reports grants from University of Minnesota, MRC, and UKRI during the conduct of the study. VJD reports grants from NIAID/NIH and contract with the University of Minnesota, outside of the conduct of the study. GM reports grants from Gilead, Abbvie, and Viiv, payment for speaking engagement from Janssen, participation on advisory boards for Astra-Zeneca and Gilead, and leadership role on Australian National COVID-19 taskforce treatments committee, outside of the conduct of the study. BTT reports grants from NHLBI and consulting fees from Bayer, Novartis, and Thetis, outside of the conduct of the study. JDN reports grants from NIH and NIAID during the conduct of the study. All other members of the writing committee declare no competing interests.

Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the following Review Boards: United States: Advarra Denmark: De Videnskabsetiske Komiteer for Region Hovedstaden Poland: Komisja Bioetyczna przy Uniwersytecie Warszawskim Spain: Hosp Universitari Germans Trias I Pujol Switzerland: Cantonal Ethics Committee Zurich Greece: Bioethic & Deontology Committee of Athens Medical School, National Organization for Medicines, and National Ethics Committee Uganda: Uganda Virus Research Institute Research Ethics Committee UK: Berkshire Research Ethics Committee Singapore: NHG Domain Specific Review Board.

Suggested Citation

Holland, Thomas L. and Ginde, Adit A. and Paredes, Roger and Murray, Thomas A. and Engen, Nicole and Grandits, Greg and Vekstein, Andrew and Ivey, Noel and Mourad, Ahmad and Sandkovsky, Uriel and Gottlieb, Robert L. and Berhe, Mezgebe and Jain, Mamta and Marines-Price, Rubria and Tchamba Agbor Agbor, Barbine and Mateu, Lourdes and Espana-Cueto, Sergio and Llados, Gemma and Mylonakis, Eleftherios and Rogers, Ralph and Shehadeh, Fadi and Filbin, Michael R. and Hibbert, Kathryn A. and Kim, Kami and Tran, Thanh and Morris, Peter E. and Cassity, Evan P. and Trautner, Barbara and Pandit, Lavannya M. and Knowlton, Kirk U. and Leither, Lindsay and Matthay, Michael A. and Rogers, Angela J. and Drake, Wonder and Jones, Beatrice and Poulakou, Garyfallia and Syrigos, Konstantinos N. and Fernandez-Cruz, Eduardo and Di Natale, Marisa and Almasri, Eyad and Balerdi-Sarasola, Leire and Bhagani, Sanjay R. and Boyle, Katherine L. and Casey, Jonathan D. and Chen, Peter and Douin, David J. and Files, D. Clark and Günthard, Huldrych F. and Hite, R. Duncan and Hyzy, Robert C. and Khan, Akram and Kibirige, Moses and Kidega, Robert and Kimuli, Ivan and Kiweewa, Francis and Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr and Leshnower, Bradley G. and Lutaakome, Joseph K. and Manian, Prasad and Menon, Vidya and Morales-Rull, Jose Luis and O'Mahony, Darragh and Overcash, J. Scott and Ramachandruni, Srikant and Steingrub, Jay S. and Taha, Hassan S. and Waters, Michael and Young, Barnaby E. and Phillips, Andrew N. and Murray, Daniel D. and Jensen, Tomas O. and Padilla, Maria L. and Sahner, David and Shaw-Saliba, Katy and Dewar, Robin L. and Teitelbaum, Marc and Natarajan, Ven and Rehman, M. Tauseef and Pett, Sarah and Hudson, Fleur and Touloumi, Giota and Brown, Samuel M. and Self, Wesley H. and Chang, Christina C. and Sanchez, Adriana and Weintrob, Amy C. and Hatlen, Timothy and Grund, Birgit and Sharma, Shweta and Reilly, Cavan S. and Garbes, Pedro and Esser, Mark T. and Templeton, Alison and Babiker, Abdel G. and Davey, Victoria J. and Gelijns, Annetine C. and Higgs, Elizabeth S. and Kan, Virginia and Matthews, Gail and Thompson, B. Taylor and Neaton, James D. and Lane, H. Clifford and Lundgren, Jens, Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab for Treatment of Hospitalised COVID-19 Patients: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Phase 3 Trial. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4087355 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4087355

Thomas L. Holland

Duke University - Division of Infectious Diseases ( email )

Adit A. Ginde (Contact Author)

University of Colorado School of Medicine ( email )

Roger Paredes

Hospital Germans Trias y Pujol (ICO-IJC) - Institut de Recerca de la Sida. IrsiCaixa ( email )

Barcelona
Spain

Autonomous University of Barcelona ( email )

Plaça Cívica
Cerdañola del Valles
Barcelona, Barcelona 08193
Spain

Thomas A. Murray

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - Division of Biostatistics ( email )

110 Wulling Hall, 86 Pleasant St, S.E.
308 Harvard Street SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455
United States

Nicole Engen

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - School of Public Health ( email )

Greg Grandits

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - School of Public Health ( email )

420 Delaware St SE Mmc88
Minneapolis, MN 55455
United States

Andrew Vekstein

University of Florida - Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ( email )

Noel Ivey

Duke University - Department of Medicine ( email )

Ahmad Mourad

Duke University - Department of Medicine ( email )

Uriel Sandkovsky

Baylor University - Division Infectious Diseases ( email )

Robert L. Gottlieb

Albert Einstein Medical Center - Institute for Heart and Vascular Disease ( email )

Philadelphia, PA
United States

Mezgebe Berhe

Baylor University - Baylor Scott & White Health Medical Center - Temple ( email )

2401 S 31st Street
Temple, TX 76508
United States

Mamta Jain

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center - Department of Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases ( email )

2601 North Floyd Road
Richardson, TX 75083
United States

Rubria Marines-Price

Stanford University - Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine ( email )

United States

Barbine Tchamba Agbor Agbor

Stanford University - Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine ( email )

United States

Lourdes Mateu

Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol ( email )

Sergio Espana-Cueto

Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol ( email )

Carretera de Canyet
Badalona, 08916
Spain

Gemma Llados

Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol ( email )

Carretera de Canyet
Badalona, 08916
Spain

Eleftherios Mylonakis

Brown University - Infectious Diseases Division ( email )

Providence, RI
United States

Ralph Rogers

Stanford University - Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine ( email )

Stanford, CA
United States

Fadi Shehadeh

St Joseph’s Hospital - The Division of Infectious Diseases ( email )

London, Ontario
Canada

Michael R. Filbin

Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology - Broad Institute of MIT Harvard ( email )

Cambridge, MA
United States

Kathryn A. Hibbert

Massachusetts General Hospital ( email )

Boston, MA
United States

Kami Kim

University of South Florida ( email )

Tampa, FL 33620
United States

Thanh Tran

University of South Florida ( email )

Tampa, FL 33620
United States

Peter E. Morris

University of Kentucky ( email )

Lexington, KY 40506
United States

Evan P. Cassity

University of Kentucky ( email )

Lexington, KY 40506
United States

Barbara Trautner

Baylor University - Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center ( email )

2002 Holcombe Blvd
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Lavannya M. Pandit

Baylor University - Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center ( email )

Kirk U. Knowlton

Intermountain Medical Center - Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute ( email )

5121 S. Cottonwood St.
Salt Lake City, UT 84107
United States

Lindsay Leither

Intermountain Medical Center ( email )

Murray, UT
United States

Michael A. Matthay

University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) - Cardiovascular Research Institute ( email )

Third Avenue and Parnassus
San Francisco, CA 94143
United States

Angela J. Rogers

St Joseph’s Hospital - The Division of Infectious Diseases ( email )

London, Ontario
Canada

Wonder Drake

Tennessee Valley Healthcare System VA Medical Center ( email )

Nashville, TN
United States

Beatrice Jones

Tennessee Valley Healthcare System VA Medical Center ( email )

Nashville, TN
United States

Garyfallia Poulakou

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - Laiko General Hospital ( email )

Athens
Greece

Konstantinos N. Syrigos

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - Laiko General Hospital ( email )

Athens
Greece

Eduardo Fernandez-Cruz

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón ( email )

Madrid
Spain

Marisa Di Natale

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón ( email )

Madrid
Spain

Eyad Almasri

University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) - Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine ( email )

San Francisco, CA
United States

Leire Balerdi-Sarasola

Hospital Clinic of Barcelona ( email )

Barcelona, 08036
Spain

Sanjay R. Bhagani

Government of the United Kingdom - Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust ( email )

London
United Kingdom

Katherine L. Boyle

Harvard University - Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ( email )

330 Brookline Avenue
Boston, MA 02115
United States

Jonathan D. Casey

Vanderbilt University - Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine ( email )

Nashville, TN 37232-2650
United States

Peter Chen

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center ( email )

David J. Douin

University of Colorado School of Medicine ( email )

D. Clark Files

Wake Forest University - Section for Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy, and Immunologic Diseases ( email )

Winston-Salem, NC 27157
United States

Huldrych F. Günthard

University of Zurich - Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology

Rämistrasse 71
Zürich, CH-8006
Switzerland

R. Duncan Hite

University of Cincinnati - Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine ( email )

231 Albert Sabin Way
Cincinnati, OH 45267-0564
United States

Robert C. Hyzy

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Medical School, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine ( email )

MI
United States

Akram Khan

Northwell Health - Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine ( email )

United States

Moses Kibirige

Masaka Regional Referral Hospital ( email )

Uganda

Robert Kidega

Gulu Regional Referral Hospital ( email )

Uganda

Ivan Kimuli

Makerere University ( email )

P.O Box 7062
P.O BOX 7062
Kampala, 256
Uganda

Francis Kiweewa

Makerere University ( email )

P.O Box 7062
P.O BOX 7062
Kampala, 256
Uganda

Jens Ulrik Stæhr Jensen

University of Copenhagen - Department of Clinical Medicine ( email )

Nørregade 10
Copenhagen, København DK-1165
Denmark

Bradley G. Leshnower

Emory University ( email )

201 Dowman Drive
Atlanta, GA 30322
United States

Joseph K. Lutaakome

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - Uganda Research Unit ( email )

United Kingdom

Prasad Manian

Baylor College of Medicine ( email )

One Baylor Plaza
Apt 510
Houston, TX TX - Texas 77030
United States

Vidya Menon

New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation ( email )

New York, NY
United States

Jose Luis Morales-Rull

Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova ( email )

Spain

Darragh O'Mahony

Swedish Medical Center ( email )

Seattle, WA 98104
United States

J. Scott Overcash

Velocity Clinical Research ( email )

United States

Srikant Ramachandruni

Texas A&M University- Corpus Christi ( email )

Jay S. Steingrub

Baystate Medical Center ( email )

United States

Hassan S. Taha

Cotton University ( email )

department of chemistry, cotton universi
panbazar, guwahati, assam
guwahati, assam 781001
India

Michael Waters

Universidad Linda Vista ( email )

Barnaby E. Young

National Centre for Infectious Diseases, Singapore ( email )

Singapore

Andrew N. Phillips

University College London - Institute for Global Health ( email )

United Kingdom

Daniel D. Murray

University of Copenhagen - Rigshospitalet ( email )

Copenhagen
Denmark

Tomas O. Jensen

University of Copenhagen - Rigshospitalet ( email )

Copenhagen
Denmark

Maria L. Padilla

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai ( email )

David Sahner

Tetracore, Inc. Rockville ( email )

MD 20850
United States

Katy Shaw-Saliba

National Institutes of Health - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( email )

Bethesda, MD 20814
United States

Robin L. Dewar

Government of the United States of America - Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research ( email )

Bethesda, MD 20892
United States

Marc Teitelbaum

Leidos Inc. ( email )

United States

Ven Natarajan

Government of the United States of America - Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research ( email )

Bethesda, MD 20892
United States

M. Tauseef Rehman

Government of the United States of America - Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research ( email )

Bethesda, MD 20892
United States

Sarah Pett

University College London ( email )

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Fleur Hudson

University College London ( email )

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Giota Touloumi

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Students ( email )

Greece

Samuel M. Brown

Intermountain Medical Center ( email )

Murray, UT
United States

Wesley H. Self

Vanderbilt University Medical Center - Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research ( email )

1211 Medical Center Dr
Nashville, TN 37232
United States

Christina C. Chang

Harvard University - Massachusetts General Hospital ( email )

55 Fruit Street Boston
Boston, MA 02114
United States

Adriana Sanchez

Government of the United States of America - Washington DC VA Medical Center ( email )

50 Irving Street NW
Washington, DC 20422
United States

Amy C. Weintrob

Government of the United States of America - Washington DC VA Medical Center ( email )

50 Irving Street NW
Washington, DC 20422
United States

Timothy Hatlen

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center ( email )

CA
United States

Birgit Grund

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - School of Statistics ( email )

Ford Hall, # 313, 0461, Church St SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455
United States

Shweta Sharma

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - School of Public Health ( email )

420 Delaware St SE Mmc88
Minneapolis, MN 55455
United States

Cavan S. Reilly

University of Minnesota - Minneapolis - School of Public Health ( email )

420 Delaware St SE Mmc88
Minneapolis, MN 55455
United States

Pedro Garbes

AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals - AstraZeneca R&D ( email )

Gaithersburg, MD
United States

Mark T. Esser

AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals - AstraZeneca R&D ( email )

Gaithersburg, MD
United States

Alison Templeton

AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals - AstraZeneca R&D ( email )

Gaithersburg, MD
United States

Abdel G. Babiker

University College London ( email )

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Victoria J. Davey

Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ( email )

810 Vermont Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20420
United States

Annetine C. Gelijns

Mount Sinai Health System - Department of Population Health Science and Policy ( email )

New YORK, NY
United States

Elizabeth S. Higgs

National Institutes of Health - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( email )

Bethesda, MD 20814
United States

Virginia Kan

Government of the United States of America - Washington DC VA Medical Center ( email )

50 Irving Street NW
Washington, DC 20422
United States

Gail Matthews

University of New South Wales

B. Taylor Thompson

Massachusetts General Hospital ( email )

James D. Neaton

University of Minnesota

10 University Avenue
Duluth, MN 55810

H. Clifford Lane

National Institutes of Health - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( email )

Jens Lundgren

University of Copenhagen - Centre of Excellence for Health, Immunity and Infections CHIP ( email )

Copenhagen, DK-2100
Denmark

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