Silenced on Social Media: The Gatekeeping Functions of Shadowbans In The American Twitterverse
Jaidka, Kokil and Mukerjee, Subhayan and Lelkes, Yphtach, Silenced on Social Media: The Gatekeeping Functions of Shadowbans In The American Twitterverse (In Press). Journal of Communication. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4087843 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4087843
41 Pages Posted: 29 Apr 2022 Last revised: 12 Dec 2022
Date Written: October 12, 2022
Algorithms play a critical role in steering online attention on social media. Many have alleged that algorithms can perpetuate bias. This study audited shadowbanning, where a user or their content is temporarily hidden on Twitter. We repeatedly tested whether a stratified random sample of American Twitter accounts (n = 25,000) had been subject to various forms of shadowbans. We then identify the type of user and tweet characteristics that predict a shadowban. In general, shadowbans are rare. We find that accounts with bot-like behavior were more likely to face shadowbans, while verified accounts were less likely to be shadowbanned. The replies by Twitter accounts that posted offensive tweets and tweets about politics (from both the left and the right) were more likely to be downtiered. The findings have implications for algorithmic accountability and the design of future audit studies of social media platforms.
Keywords: platforms, Twitter, censorship, audit, shadowbans, text analysis
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