Comparative Analysis of Ethnic Minority Occupational Attainments in the UK 2014-2018

40 Pages Posted: 16 May 2022 Last revised: 18 Aug 2023

See all articles by Rukhsana Kausar

Rukhsana Kausar

Westminster Business School

Issam Malki

University of Westminster

Date Written: April 22, 2022


The integration and assimilation of ethnic minority immigrants (EMIs) and their subsequent generations remains a serious unsettled issue in most of the host countries. This study conducts the labour market gender analysis to investigate specifically whether second generation of ethnic minority immigrants in the UK is gaining access to professional and managerial employment and advantaged occupational positions on par with their native counterparts.

The data used to examine the labour market achievements of EMIs is taken from Labour Force Survey (LFS) for the period 2014-2018. We apply a multivalued treatment under ignorability and report estimates of Average Treatment Effect (ATE), Average Treatment Effect on the Treated (ATET) and Potential Outcomes Means (POM) using three estimators including the Regression Adjustment (RA), Augmented Inverse Probability Weighting (AIPW) and Inverse Probability Weighting- Regression Adjustment (IPWRA). We consider two cases: the case with four categories where the first-generation natives are the base category, the second case combine all natives as a base group. Our findings suggest the following. Under Case 1, the estimated probabilities and differences across groups are consistently similar and highly significant. As expected, first generation natives have the highest probability for higher career attainment among both men and women. The findings also suggest that first generation immigrants perform better than the remaining two groups including the second-generation natives and immigrants. Furthermore, second generation immigrants have higher probability to attain higher professional career, while this is lower for managerial career. Similar conclusions are reached under Case 2. That is to say that both first – generation and second – generation immigrants have lower probability for higher career and managerial attainment. First – generation immigrants are found to perform better than second – generation immigrants.

Keywords: ethnic immigrants, second generation, occupational attainment, employment, average treatment effect, regression adjustment

JEL Classification: J40, C13

Suggested Citation

Kausar, Rukhsana and Malki, Issam, Comparative Analysis of Ethnic Minority Occupational Attainments in the UK 2014-2018 (April 22, 2022). Available at SSRN: or

Rukhsana Kausar (Contact Author)

Westminster Business School ( email )

35 Marylebone Road
London NW1 5LS
United Kingdom

Issam Malki

University of Westminster ( email )

309 Regent Street
London, W1R 8AL
United Kingdom
nw1 5ls (Fax)

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