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Vaccine Subtype and Dose Interval Determine Immunogenicity of Primary Series COVID-19 Vaccines in Older People

29 Pages Posted: 27 Apr 2022 Publication Status: Published

See all articles by Helen Parry

Helen Parry

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Rachel Bruton

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Morenike Ayodele

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Panagiota Sylla

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Graham McIlroy

University of Birmingham - Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences

Nicola Logan

University of Glasgow - Centre for Virus Research (CVR)

Sam Scott

University of Glasgow - Centre for Virus Research (CVR)

Sam Nicol

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Kriti Verma

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Christine Stephens

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Brian Willett

University of Glasgow - Centre for Virus Research (CVR)

Jianmin Zuo

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Paul Moss

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

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Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines mediate strong clinical protection against COVID-19 and over 2 billion people have received primary series vaccination with BNT162b2 (mRNA) or ChAdOx1 (adenoviral vector). Age is the strongest determinant of COVID-19 mortality but the profile of sustained vaccine immunogenicity in older people is unknown. We determined spike-specific humoral and cellular immunity to 8 months following BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 in 245 people age 80-98 years. Both vaccines were strongly immunogenic with antibodies retained in every donor whilst titers fell to 23-26% of peak value. Antibody titer was enhanced 3.7-fold with extended interval BNT162b2 dosage and neutralisation was superior following BNT162b2. Conversely, cellular immune responses were stronger following ChAdOx1 and retained to 33-60% of peak value with all vaccines. BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 elicit strong but differential sustained immunogenicity in older people. These data provide a baseline to assess ongoing immune memory and optimal booster vaccine regimen in this vulnerable age group.

Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Core Studies Immunity programme and the UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium (UK-CIC) funded by NIHR/UKRI. Funding to BW was provided by BBSRC BB/R004250/1 and BB/R019843/1.

Conflict of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval: Ethical approval was obtained from North West Preston Research Ethics Committee with favourable outcome (REC 20\NW\0240) and work was performed under the CIA UPH and conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and good clinical practice.

Keywords: COVID-19, vaccines, elderly, primary series, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1

Suggested Citation

Parry, Helen and Bruton, Rachel and Ayodele, Morenike and Sylla, Panagiota and McIlroy, Graham and Logan, Nicola and Scott, Sam and Nicol, Sam and Verma, Kriti and Stephens, Christine and Willett, Brian and Zuo, Jianmin and Moss, Paul, Vaccine Subtype and Dose Interval Determine Immunogenicity of Primary Series COVID-19 Vaccines in Older People. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4095379 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4095379
This version of the paper has not been formally peer reviewed.

Helen Parry

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Rachel Bruton

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Morenike Ayodele

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Panagiota Sylla

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Graham McIlroy

University of Birmingham - Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Nicola Logan

University of Glasgow - Centre for Virus Research (CVR) ( email )

Sam Scott

University of Glasgow - Centre for Virus Research (CVR) ( email )

Sam Nicol

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Kriti Verma

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Christine Stephens

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Brian Willett

University of Glasgow - Centre for Virus Research (CVR) ( email )

Jianmin Zuo

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Paul Moss (Contact Author)

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

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