Mother’s Late Return Home from Work, Family Relationship, and Non-cognitive Skills of Children: Evidence from Japanese Adolescents
50 Pages Posted: 20 May 2022 Last revised: 24 Jul 2022
Date Written: July 21, 2022
The increasing number of married women in full-time and managerial positions raises the question of whether mothers’ working conditions have any impact on the non-cognitive skills of their children. Using a nationwide child–parent survey in Japan, this study examines the association between mothers’ time of returning home from work and their children’s locus of control. The results of the entropy balancing method demonstrate that the daughters of mothers who return after 7 pm are more likely to believe that they cannot control their life outcomes, while such an association is not observed for sons. This relationship is mediated by the deterioration of family relationships. In line with theoretical predictions, the negative association is more severe among households with high socioeconomic status, while it is mitigated if fathers return home early or children co-habit with their grandparents.
Keywords: locus of control, maternal employment, family relationship, child development
JEL Classification: D91, J13, J22
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation