Mother’s Late Return Home from Work, Family Relationship, and Non-cognitive Skills of Children: Evidence from Japanese Adolescents

50 Pages Posted: 20 May 2022 Last revised: 24 Jul 2022

See all articles by Mai Seki

Mai Seki

Ritsumeikan University

Masahiro Shoji

University of Tokyo - Graduate School of Economics

Izumi Yamasaki

Gakushuin University

Date Written: July 21, 2022

Abstract

The increasing number of married women in full-time and managerial positions raises the question of whether mothers’ working conditions have any impact on the non-cognitive skills of their children. Using a nationwide child–parent survey in Japan, this study examines the association between mothers’ time of returning home from work and their children’s locus of control. The results of the entropy balancing method demonstrate that the daughters of mothers who return after 7 pm are more likely to believe that they cannot control their life outcomes, while such an association is not observed for sons. This relationship is mediated by the deterioration of family relationships. In line with theoretical predictions, the negative association is more severe among households with high socioeconomic status, while it is mitigated if fathers return home early or children co-habit with their grandparents.

Keywords: locus of control, maternal employment, family relationship, child development

JEL Classification: D91, J13, J22

Suggested Citation

Seki, Mai and Shoji, Masahiro and Yamasaki, Izumi, Mother’s Late Return Home from Work, Family Relationship, and Non-cognitive Skills of Children: Evidence from Japanese Adolescents (July 21, 2022). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4098267 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4098267

Mai Seki

Ritsumeikan University ( email )

1-1-1 Nojihigashi
Kusatsu, Shiga 5250058
Japan
6137827045 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://https://sites.google.com/site/maisekiuw/

Masahiro Shoji (Contact Author)

University of Tokyo - Graduate School of Economics ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Izumi Yamasaki

Gakushuin University ( email )

1-5-1 Mejiro
Toshima-ku Tokyo 171-8588
United States

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