With Increasing Site Quality Asymmetric Competition and Mortality Reduces Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Stand Structuring Across Europe

56 Pages Posted: 7 May 2022

See all articles by Hans Pretzsch

Hans Pretzsch

Technische Universität München (TUM)

Andrés Bravo-Oviedo

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Torben Hilmers

Technische Universität München (TUM)

Ricardo RUIZ-PEINADO

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Lluís Coll

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Magnus Löf

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Shamim Ahmed

Technische Universität München (TUM)

Jorge Aldea

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Christian Ammer

University of Göttingen

Admir Avdagić

University of Sarajevo

Ignacio Barbeito

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Kamil Bielak

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Felipe Bravo

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Gediminas Brazaitis

Vytautas Magnus University

Jakub Cerný

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Catherine Collet

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Lars Drössler

Ilia State University

Marek Fabrika

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Michael Heym

Bavarian State Institute of Forestry

Stig-Olof Holm

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Gro Hylen

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Aris Jansons

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Viktor Kurylyak

Ukrainian National Forestry University

Fabio Lombardi

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Bratislav Matović

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Marek Metslaid

Estonian University of Life Sciences

Renzo Motta

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Thomas Nord-Larsen

Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management

Arne Nothdurft

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Cristóbal Ordóñez

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Jan den Ouden

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Maciej Pach

University of Agriculture in Krakow

Marta PARDOS

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Quentin Ponette

UCLouvain

Tomas Pérot

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Ditlev Otto Juel Reventlow

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Roman Sitko

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Vit Sramek

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Mathias Steckel

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Miroslav Svoboda

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS) - Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences

Enno Uhl

Technische Universität München (TUM)

Kris Verheyen

Ghent University

Sonja Vospernik

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Barbara Wolff

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Tzetvan Zlatanov

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

MIREN DEL RÍO

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Abstract

Heterogeneity of structure can increase mechanical stability, stress resistance and resilience, biodiversity and many other functions and services of forest stands. That is why many silvicultural measures aim at enhancing structural diversity. However, the effectiveness and potential of structuring may depend on the site conditions. Here, we revealed how the stand structure is determined by site quality and results from site-dependent partitioning of growth and mortality among the trees. We based our study on 90 mature, even-aged, fully stocked monocultures of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) sampled in 21 countries along a productivity gradient across Europe. A mini-simulation study further analyzed the site-dependency of the interplay between growth and mortality and the resulting stand structure. The overarching hypothesis was that the stand structure changes with site quality and results from the site-dependent asymmetry of competition and mortality.First, we show that Scots pine stands structure across Europe become more homogeneous with increasing site quality. The coefficient of variation and Gini coefficient of stem diameter and tree height continuously decreased, whereas Stand Density Index and stand basal area increased with site index.Second, we reveal a site-dependency of the growth distribution among the trees and the mortality. With increasing site index, the asymmetry of both competition and growth distribution increased and suggested, at first glance, an increase in stand heterogeneity. However, with increasing site index, mortality eliminates mainly small instead of all-sized trees, cancels the size variation and reduces the structural heterogeneity.Third, we modelled the site-dependent interplay between growth partitioning and mortality. By scenario runs for different site conditions, we can show how the site-dependent structure at the stand level emerges from the asymmetric competition and mortality at the tree level and how the interplay changes with increasing site quality across Europe.Our most interesting finding was that the growth partitioning became more asymmetric and structuring with increasing site quality, but that the mortality eliminated predominantly small trees, reduced their size variation and thus reversed the impact of site quality on the structure. Finally, the reverse effects of mode of growth partitioning and mortality on the stand structure resulted in the highest size variation on poor sites and decreased structural heterogeneity with increasing site quality. Since our results indicate where heterogeneous structures need silviculture interventions and where they emerge naturally, we conclude that these findings may improve system understanding and modelling and guide forest management aiming at structurally rich forests.

Keywords: asymmetry of competition, size-dependent mortality, mode of competition, growth dominance coefficient, Gini coefficient, structural heterogeneity

Suggested Citation

Pretzsch, Hans and Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés and Hilmers, Torben and RUIZ-PEINADO, Ricardo and Coll, Lluís and Löf, Magnus and Ahmed, Shamim and Aldea, Jorge and Ammer, Christian and Avdagić, Admir and Barbeito, Ignacio and Bielak, Kamil and Bravo, Felipe and Brazaitis, Gediminas and Cerný, Jakub and Collet, Catherine and Drössler, Lars and Fabrika, Marek and Heym, Michael and Holm, Stig-Olof and Hylen, Gro and Jansons, Aris and Kurylyak, Viktor and Lombardi, Fabio and Matović, Bratislav and Metslaid, Marek and Motta, Renzo and Nord-Larsen, Thomas and Nothdurft, Arne and Ordóñez, Cristóbal and den Ouden, Jan and Pach, Maciej and PARDOS, Marta and Ponette, Quentin and Pérot, Tomas and Reventlow, Ditlev Otto Juel and Sitko, Roman and Sramek, Vit and Steckel, Mathias and Svoboda, Miroslav and Uhl, Enno and Verheyen, Kris and Vospernik, Sonja and Wolff, Barbara and Zlatanov, Tzetvan and DEL RÍO, MIREN, With Increasing Site Quality Asymmetric Competition and Mortality Reduces Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Stand Structuring Across Europe. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4102859 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4102859

Hans Pretzsch (Contact Author)

Technische Universität München (TUM) ( email )

Andrés Bravo-Oviedo

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Torben Hilmers

Technische Universität München (TUM) ( email )

Ricardo RUIZ-PEINADO

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Lluís Coll

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Magnus Löf

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Shamim Ahmed

Technische Universität München (TUM) ( email )

Jorge Aldea

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Christian Ammer

University of Göttingen ( email )

Admir Avdagić

University of Sarajevo ( email )

Ignacio Barbeito

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Kamil Bielak

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Felipe Bravo

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Gediminas Brazaitis

Vytautas Magnus University ( email )

Jakub Cerný

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Catherine Collet

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Lars Drössler

Ilia State University ( email )

Kakutsa Cholokashvili Ave 3/5
Tbilisi, 0162
Georgia

Marek Fabrika

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Michael Heym

Bavarian State Institute of Forestry ( email )

Stig-Olof Holm

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Gro Hylen

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Aris Jansons

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Viktor Kurylyak

Ukrainian National Forestry University ( email )

Fabio Lombardi

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Bratislav Matović

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Marek Metslaid

Estonian University of Life Sciences ( email )

Renzo Motta

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Thomas Nord-Larsen

Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management ( email )

Copenhagen
Denmark

Arne Nothdurft

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Cristóbal Ordóñez

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Jan Den Ouden

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Maciej Pach

University of Agriculture in Krakow ( email )

Marta PARDOS

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Quentin Ponette

UCLouvain ( email )

Tomas Pérot

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Ditlev Otto Juel Reventlow

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Roman Sitko

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Vit Sramek

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Mathias Steckel

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Miroslav Svoboda

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS) - Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences ( email )

Enno Uhl

Technische Universität München (TUM) ( email )

Kris Verheyen

Ghent University ( email )

Sonja Vospernik

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Barbara Wolff

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Tzetvan Zlatanov

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences ( email )

MIREN DEL RÍO

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

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