Wealth and its Distribution in Germany, 1895-2018

54 Pages Posted: 10 May 2022

See all articles by Thilo Albers

Thilo Albers

Humboldt University of Berlin

Charlotte Bartels

German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) - German Socio Economic Panel

Moritz Schularick

University of Bonn - Department of Economics; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

Date Written: 2022

Abstract

German history over the past 125 years has been turbulent. Marked by two world wars, revolutions and major regime changes, as well as a hyperinflation and three currency reforms, expropriations and territorial divisions, it provides unique insights into the role of country-specific shocks in shaping long-run wealth dynamics. This paper presents the first comprehensive study of wealth and its distribution in Germany since the 19th century. We combine tax and archival data, household surveys, historical national accounts, and rich lists to analyze the evolution of the German wealth distribution over the long run. We show that the top 1% wealth share has fallen by half, from close to 50% in 1895 to 27% today. Nearly all of this decline was the result of changes that occurred between 1914 and 1952. The interwar period and the wealth taxation in the aftermath of World War II stand out as the great equalizers in 20th century German history. After unification in 1990, two trends have left their mark on the German wealth distribution. Households at the top made substantial capital gains from rising business wealth while the middle-class had large capital gains in the housing market. The wealth share of the bottom 50% halved since 1990. Our findings speak to the importance of historical shocks to the distribution and valuations of existing wealth in explaining the evolution of the wealth distribution over the long run.

Keywords: wealth inequality, portfolio heterogeneity, saving, wealth taxation

JEL Classification: D310, E010, E210, H200, N300

Suggested Citation

Albers, Thilo and Bartels, Charlotte and Schularick, Moritz, Wealth and its Distribution in Germany, 1895-2018 (2022). CESifo Working Paper No. 9739, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4103952 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4103952

Thilo Albers (Contact Author)

Humboldt University of Berlin ( email )

Unter den Linden 6
Berlin, AK Berlin 10099
Germany

Charlotte Bartels

German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) - German Socio Economic Panel ( email )

DIW Berlin
Berlin, Berlin 10117
Germany

Moritz Schularick

University of Bonn - Department of Economics ( email )

Bonn
Germany

Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

London
United Kingdom

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