The Consequences of Remote and Hybrid Instruction During the Pandemic

36 Pages Posted: 9 May 2022 Last revised: 14 May 2022

See all articles by Dan Goldhaber

Dan Goldhaber

University of Washington

Thomas J. Kane

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Public Policy & Social Research; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Andrew McEachin

NWEA

Emily Morton

NWEA

Tyler Patterson

Harvard University - Center for Education Policy Research

Douglas Staiger

Dartmouth College - Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Date Written: May 2022

Abstract

Using testing data from 2.1 million students in 10,000 schools in 49 states (plus D.C.), we investigate the role of remote and hybrid instruction in widening gaps in achievement by race and school poverty. We find that remote instruction was a primary driver of widening achievement gaps. Math gaps did not widen in areas that remained in-person (although there was some widening in reading gaps in those areas). We estimate that high-poverty districts that went remote in 2020-21 will need to spend nearly all of their federal aid on academic recovery to help students recover from pandemic-related achievement losses.

Suggested Citation

Goldhaber, Dan and Kane, Thomas J. and McEachin, Andrew and Morton, Emily and Patterson, Tyler and Staiger, Douglas, The Consequences of Remote and Hybrid Instruction During the Pandemic (May 2022). NBER Working Paper No. w30010, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4103996

Dan Goldhaber (Contact Author)

University of Washington

Thomas J. Kane

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Public Policy & Social Research ( email )

Box 951656
Los Angeles, CA 90095
United States

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

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Cambridge, MA 02138
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Andrew McEachin

NWEA ( email )

121 NW Everett Street
Portland, OR 97209
United States

Emily Morton

NWEA ( email )

121 NW Everett Street
Portland, OR 97209
United States

Tyler Patterson

Harvard University - Center for Education Policy Research ( email )

50 Church Street, 4th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Douglas Staiger

Dartmouth College - Department of Economics ( email )

Hanover, NH 03755
United States
603-643-2979 (Phone)

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

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