The Correlation of Alcohol Use or Alcohol Use Disorder and Metabolic Syndrome with a Nutritional Protocol Intervention Design: A Literature Review
38 Pages Posted: 27 May 2022 Last revised: 17 Jun 2022
Date Written: April 3, 2022
Background: A look at the correlation between alcohol use (AU) or alcohol use disorder (AUD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with the prevalence of hypertension, abdominal or central obesity, diabetes mellitus type 2 or insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia (low HDL and/or high triglycerides), which both increase the risk of, and could lead to cardiovascular disease?
Objective: This literature review set out to analyze the association between MetS with AU or AUD while assessing if nutritional therapies, supplementation, and lifestyle changes could reduce AU or AUD and MetS conditions and decrease the chance of relapsing through these interventions as a prescribing protocol.
Methods: The study search parameters included adults 18 years or older, diagnosed with AU or AUD and/or with MetS or correlating MetS conditions and nutritional therapies like whole food diets, supplementation, and lifestyle changes with improvement to AU or AUD and MetS. Exclusions included children or adolescents under 18 and populations diagnosed with conditions other than AU, AUD, or MetS. Also excluded were duplicates, not in English, animal studies, and not relevant to the study population or treatment therapies.
Results: This review analyzed several varying studies to determine if a relationship between AU or AUD and MetS could be determined. Studies in AU or AUD presented with one correlating MetS criteria. However, the results from this study could only show a pattern that AU or AUD did result in MetS factors, but it couldn’t prove if those with AU or AUD had three or more of the MetS criteria at one time which is a requirement for MetS diagnosis. During this review, one systematic study declared a correlation between AU or AUD and MetS. This literature review included this study to highlight the importance of recognizing and garnering further investigations that a correlating relationship relates to AU or AUD and MetS.
There needs to be further research on this matter and further understanding of nutritional therapies, supplementation, lifestyle changes, and the effects on relapse. There is a lack of information on AU or AUD and MetS protocols concerning healing therapies as a unit. There are studies on these separately, and it’s minimal when looking at AU and AUD, which are mainly geared towards psychological therapies than physical therapies that would include nutrition, supplements, and lifestyle changes beyond abstaining. In conclusion, more needs to be investigated before understanding whether this will lessen relapses or not.
Discussion: There were numerous limitations with the evidence from general health, smoking, genetic, racial, ethnic, gender, weight, and socioeconomic status when assessing health risks associated with AU or AUD and MetS (Rochlani et al., 2017). Despite the limitations of the studies reviewed, there is reason to say that AU or AUD and MetS could be correlating combined risk factors in those that chronically consume large amounts of alcohol. More research is needed on the correlation between AU or AUD and MetS, including how nutritional therapies, supplementation, lifestyle changes, and the effects on relapse fit into the process. The conclusion is that the relationship between AU or AUD and Mets is complex and not easily determined. More research could define the relationship concretely as this is just a start to unraveling the patterns.
Other: There are no grants or funding from individuals, organizations, groups, companies, or other legal entities.
Funding Information: There are no grants or funding from individuals, organizations, groups, companies, or other legal entities.
Declaration of Interests: No conflict of interest.
Keywords: Alcohol use, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, Alcohol Drinking, Association, Metabolic Syndrome X, alcohol consumption, abuse, and dependence, alcohol use disorder (AUD), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), malabsorption, alcoholism, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Insulin Resis
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