The Effects of Alcohol Use on the Microbiome and A Nutritional Protocol Intervention Design: A Literature Review
30 Pages Posted: 16 Jun 2022
Date Written: April 10, 2022
Background: A look at the effects of alcohol on the microbiome and the imbalances that could be due to alcohol use (AU)?
Objective: This literature review set out to analyze the effects of AU on the microbiome while assessing the imbalances that occur due to the AU and how to restore the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract after AU.
Methods: The study’s search parameters included adults 18 years or older, who presented with AU and/or microbiome-related issues, and nutritional therapies like whole food diets, supplementation, and lifestyle changes with improvement to AU and the microbiome. Alcohol use disorders (AUD), also included in this review as chronic; long-term use is classified under these terms, which correlates to numerous health ailments or conditions. Exclusions had children or adolescents under 18 and populations diagnosed with diseases other than AU or AUD or microbiome ailments. Also excluded were duplicates not in English, animal studies, and not relevant to the study population or treatment therapies.
Results: This review analyzed several studies to determine if a relationship between AU and microbiome imbalances could be determined. Studies on AU presented evidence that a microbiome imbalance affects gut permeability, causes inflammatory cytokines, and endotoxins into the liver, and further bile acid synthesis, leading to a vicious AU cycle. There is a need for further research on this matter and further understanding of nutritional therapies, supplementation, lifestyle changes, and the effects on relapse. There is a lack of information on AU and the microbiome concerning healing therapies as a unit. There are studies on these separately, and it’s minimal when looking at AU, which is mainly geared towards psychological therapies than physical therapies beyond abstaining. In conclusion, more needs to be investigated before understanding whether the healing of the microbiome will lessen relapses or not.
Discussion: There were numerous limitations with the evidence from general health, smoking, genetic, racial, ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic status when assessing health risks associated with AU and how it affects the microbiome. Despite these limitations, there is reason to say that AU does affect the microbiome, especially when alcohol is chronically consumed in large amounts. More research is needed on the correlation between AU and the microbiome, including how nutritional therapies, supplementation, lifestyle changes, and the actual effects on relapse fit into the whole healing process. The conclusion is that the relationship between AU and the microbiome is complex due to the correlation and numerous impacts on the body they both make. More research could define the relationship concretely as this is just a start to an even grander process.
Other: There are no grants or funding from individuals, organizations, groups, companies, or other legal entities.
Funding Information: here are no grants or funding from individuals, organizations, groups, companies, or other legal entities.
Conflict of Interests: No conflict of interest.
Keywords: Alcohol consumption, alcohol use, abuse, and dependence, alcohol use disorder, microbiota, intestinal microbiota, microbiota analysis, oral microbiome, oral dysbiosis, gastrointestinal microbiome, microbiome, dysbiosis, probiotics, prebiotics, inflammation, metabolites, gut permeability, cytokin
JEL Classification: I10, I20
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation