Network Pharmacology Study on the Diuretic Effect of Plantaginis Semen and its Anti-Hypertensive Mechanism
26 Pages Posted: 10 Jun 2022
Background: Plantaginis Semen (PS), the mature seed of Plantago asiatica L. or Plantago depressa Willd., is a well-known Chinese medicine used as a diuretic and to remove dampness. It has been used to treat hypertension on account of its diuresis, but the efficacy of its diuresis is rarely reported. In addition, the systematic and holistic view of the anti-hypertensive mechanism of PS has not yet been elucidated.
Purpose: To assess diuretic effect of Plantaginis Semen and clarify its anti-hypertensive mechanism, promoting clinical applications of Plantaginis Semen to better treatment the patients.
Methods: Different doses of PS ethanol (PSE) extract were administered to rats in a saline-loaded model, and urine excretion and electrolytes in urine were used as indicators. In addition, the main components in PSE were identified through ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography, and then we further clarified the anti-hypertensive mechanism of PS, which may also its diuretic mechanism, through network pharmacology. Molecular docking of the hub gene and Western blot determination of key protein expression levels were performed.
Results: The results indicated that acteoside, isoacteoside, and plantamajoside may be the anti-hypertensive active ingredients of PS, and a dose-dependent effect was observed for PSE. The main metabolic pathways involved arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, and sphingolipid signaling pathways. This study will play a critical and guiding role in the dosing of PS as a diuretic drug for clinical applications. We also revealed the material foundation and mechanism of action that PS uses to regulate its anti-hypertensive effects through multi-target-multi-channel-multi-components, thereby providing a theoretical and scientific basis for the clinical application of PS.
Conclusion: PS with diuretic effect have therapeutic effects on hypertension by regulating RAAS, lipid metabolism, immune and inflammation related targets and pathways with the help of ingredients of phenylethanoid glycosides.
Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Standardization Project of Traditional Chinese 545 Medicine (ZYBZH-Y-JX-27) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (82160749) 546 (82104392).
Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Ethical Approval Statement: All of the experiments 139 were performed following the guidelines established by the Institutional Animal Care and Use 140 Committee of China and duly approved by the Animal Care and Research Committee of Jiangxi 141 University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Nanchang, China) under license No. 142 JZLLSC2020_0108.
Keywords: Plantaginis Semen, diuretic, hypertension, network pharmacology, molecular docking
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