Cognitive Endurance as Human Capital

49 Pages Posted: 13 Jun 2022 Last revised: 2 Nov 2022

See all articles by Christina Brown

Christina Brown

University of Chicago

Supreet Kaur

University of California, Berkeley - Department of Economics

Geeta Kingdon

University College London - UCL Institute of Education

Heather Schofield

Harvard University

Date Written: June 2022


Schooling may build human capital not only by teaching academic skills, but by expanding the capacity for cognition itself. We focus specifically on cognitive endurance: the ability to sustain effortful mental activity over a continuous stretch of time. As motivation, we document that globally and in the US, the poor exhibit cognitive fatigue more quickly than the rich across field settings; they also attend schools that offer fewer opportunities to practice thinking for continuous stretches. Using a field experiment with 1,600 Indian primary school students, we randomly increase the amount of time students spend in sustained cognitive activity during the school day—using either math problems (mimicking good schooling) or non-academic games (providing a pure test of our mechanism). Each approach markedly improves cognitive endurance: students show 22% less decline in performance over time when engaged in intellectual activities—listening comprehension, academic problems, or IQ tests. They also exhibit increased attentiveness in the classroom and score higher on psychological measures of sustained attention. Moreover, each treatment improves students’ school performance by 0.09 standard deviations. This indicates that the experience of effortful thinking itself—even when devoid of any subject content—increases the ability to accumulate traditional human capital. Finally, we complement these results with quasi-experimental variation indicating that an additional year of schooling improves cognitive endurance, but only in higher-quality schools. Our findings suggest that schooling disparities may further disadvantage poor children by hampering the development of a core mental capacity.

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Suggested Citation

Brown, Christina and Kaur, Supreet and Kingdon, Geeta and Schofield, Heather, Cognitive Endurance as Human Capital (June 2022). NBER Working Paper No. w30133, Available at SSRN:

Christina Brown (Contact Author)

University of Chicago ( email )

Supreet Kaur

University of California, Berkeley - Department of Economics ( email )

579 Evans Hall
Berkeley, CA 94709
United States

Geeta Kingdon

University College London - UCL Institute of Education ( email )

Heather Schofield

Harvard University ( email )

1875 Cambridge Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

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