Voting As Exclusion

23 Pages Posted: 20 Jun 2022

Date Written: November 2021


This Essay considers two prevalent narratives about voting. In one narrative, voting expresses the civic virtue of the voter. In another, voting is an expression of inclusion in our political community’s circle of membership.

I argue that although both narratives are true, and important, there is a third narrative that shadows them both. In this third narrative, voting affirms the exclusion of millions of people from our political community. The stories we tell about voting are incomplete and, sometimes, harmful.

Keywords: voting, elections, election law, narratives, virtue, inclusion, law and humanities

Suggested Citation

Ayers, Ava (formerly Andrew), Voting As Exclusion (November 2021). Fordham Law Review, Vol. 90, 2021, Available at SSRN:

Ava (formerly Andrew) Ayers (Contact Author)

Albany Law School ( email )

80 New Scotland Avenue
Albany, NY 12208
United States

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