Chlorinated Organophosphate Esters in Irish Waste Foams and Fabrics: Concentrations, Preliminary Assessment of Temporal Trends and Evaluation of the Impact of a Concentration Limit Value

22 Pages Posted: 2 Aug 2022

See all articles by Stuart Harrad

Stuart Harrad

University of Birmingham

MARTIN SHARKEY

University of Galway

Will Stubbings

University of Birmingham

Misbah Alghamdi

University of Birmingham

Harald Berresheim

University of Galway

Marie Coggins

University of Galway

André Henrique Rosa

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Daniel Drage

University of Birmingham

Abstract

Concentrations of the chlorinated organophosphate esters (Cl-OPEs): tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) were measured in 273 waste synthetic foam and fabric articles collected in Ireland between 2019 and 2020. Articles examined comprised: polystyrene building insulation foam, as well as foam fillings and fabric coverings from furniture, mattresses, end of life vehicles, curtains, and carpets. Cl-OPEs were also measured in 156 samples from the same categories (except for building insulation foam) collected in 2015-16. Concentrations of TCIPP and TDCIPP in most samples exceeded those of TCEP; with those of TCIPP and TDCIPP generally and for some waste categories significantly (p<0.05) higher in samples collected in 2019-20. Given potential future restrictions on use of these Cl-OPEs, we identified articles containing concentrations that exceeded 1,000 mg/kg, as such a limit exists for some brominated flame retardants within the European Union. In 2019-20, 82 articles contained at least one Cl-OPE above 1,000 mg/kg, with at least one article exceeding this concentration in each waste category examined. By comparison, only 28 samples collected in 2015-16, contained at least one Cl-OPE >1,000 mg/kg, and articles exceeding this concentration were restricted to furniture and mattress foam, along with foams and fabrics from end-of-life vehicles. In the event of the introduction of such a limit on Cl-OPE concentrations in waste, it will result in 7,200 t/year of such waste (24% of the total) being rendered unrecyclable, while removing 98% of the estimated ~147,000 kg/year of Cl-OPEs from the recycling stream.

Keywords: Plastics, TCIPP, TDCIPP, TCEP, Waste

Suggested Citation

Harrad, Stuart and SHARKEY, MARTIN and Stubbings, Will and Alghamdi, Misbah and Berresheim, Harald and Coggins, Marie and Rosa, André Henrique and Drage, Daniel, Chlorinated Organophosphate Esters in Irish Waste Foams and Fabrics: Concentrations, Preliminary Assessment of Temporal Trends and Evaluation of the Impact of a Concentration Limit Value. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4179134 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4179134

Stuart Harrad (Contact Author)

University of Birmingham ( email )

Edgbaston, B15 2TT
United Kingdom

MARTIN SHARKEY

University of Galway ( email )

Galway
Ireland

Will Stubbings

University of Birmingham ( email )

Misbah Alghamdi

University of Birmingham ( email )

Edgbaston, B15 2TT
United Kingdom

Harald Berresheim

University of Galway ( email )

Galway
Ireland

Marie Coggins

University of Galway ( email )

Galway
Ireland

André Henrique Rosa

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Daniel Drage

University of Birmingham ( email )

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