Artificial Intelligence Crime: An Overview of Malicious Use and Abuse of AI

IEEE Access 2022, Vol 10, 77110 - 77122, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3191790

13 Pages Posted: 16 Sep 2022

See all articles by Taís Fernanda Blauth

Taís Fernanda Blauth

University of Groningen - Campus Fryslân

Oskar Josef Gstrein

University of Groningen; Europa-Institut, Saarland University

Andrej Zwitter

Campus Fryslân

Date Written: July 18, 2022

Abstract

The capabilities of Artificial Intelligence (AI) evolve rapidly and affect almost all sectors of society. AI has been increasingly integrated into criminal and harmful activities, expanding existing vulnerabilities, and introducing new threats. This article reviews the relevant literature, reports, and representative incidents which allows to construct a typology of the malicious use and abuse of systems with AI capabilities. The main objective is to clarify the types of activities and corresponding risks. Our starting point is to identify the vulnerabilities of AI models and outline how malicious actors can abuse them. Subsequently, we explore AI-enabled and AI-enhanced attacks. While we present a comprehensive overview, we do not aim for a conclusive and exhaustive classification. Rather, we provide an overview of the risks of enhanced AI application, that contributes to the growing body of knowledge on the issue. Specifically, we suggest four types of malicious abuse of AI (integrity attacks, unintended AI outcomes, algorithmic trading, membership inference attacks) and four types of malicious use of AI (social engineering, misinformation/fake news, hacking, autonomous weapon systems). Mapping these threats enables advanced reflection of governance strategies, policies, and activities that can be developed or improved to minimize risks and avoid harmful consequences. Enhanced collaboration among governments, industries, and civil society actors is vital to increase preparedness and resilience against malicious use and abuse of AI.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, artificial intelligence typology, computer crime, malicious artificial intelligence, security, social implications of technology

Suggested Citation

Blauth, Taís Fernanda and Gstrein, Oskar Josef and Zwitter, Andrej, Artificial Intelligence Crime: An Overview of Malicious Use and Abuse of AI (July 18, 2022). IEEE Access 2022, Vol 10, 77110 - 77122, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3191790, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4190323

Taís Fernanda Blauth (Contact Author)

University of Groningen - Campus Fryslân ( email )

Netherlands

Oskar Josef Gstrein

University of Groningen ( email )

P.O. Box 800
9700 AH Groningen, Groningen 9700 AV
Netherlands

HOME PAGE: http://www.rug.nl/staff/o.j.gstrein/

Europa-Institut, Saarland University ( email )

Campus, Gebäude B2.1
Saarbrücken, 66123
Germany

HOME PAGE: http://europainstitut.de

Andrej Zwitter

Campus Fryslân ( email )

P.O. Box 800
9700 AH Groningen, Groningen 9700 AV
Netherlands

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