Maternal Alcoholism Affects Cell Lineage in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis
24 Pages Posted: 31 Aug 2022
Perinatal ethanol exposure (PEE) impacts the developing fetus, the central nervous system being particularly affected. These alterations can have clinical implications encompassed in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), which include physical, mental, and behavioral deficits, with possible lifelong consequences. The hippocampus is implicated in cognitive functions which are altered in adults with FASD. The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus conserves the capacity to produce new neurons in adulthood. In this context, our study aimed to describe the effect of PEE on adult hippocampal neurogenesis using a murine model. Female CD1 mice were exposed to ethanol 6% v/v for 20 days prior to mating and along pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, pups had no further contact with ethanol. Characteristic cell types of the adult male DG were studied by immunofluorescence. A lower percentage of type 1 and 4 cells and a higher percentage of type 2 cells were observed in PEE animals. This decrease in type 1 cells suggests that PEE reduces the population of remnant progenitors of the DG present in adulthood. The increase in type 2 cells and decrease in type 4 cells may indicate that the presence of ethanol during neurodevelopment alters the capacity of neuroblasts to become neurons in the adult neurogenic niche. These results suggest that pathways implicated in cell determination were affected by PEE and remained affect in adulthood. Since neurogenesis is associated to cognitive processes altered in FASD, these results may contribute to explaining one of the mechanisms involved in alcohol teratogenesis.
Funding Information: This work was supported by grants from Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBACYT 20020170100371BA) and FONCYT (PICT2017-0610).
Declaration of Interests: Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Ethics Approval Statement: All procedures were administered under the aproval of CICUAL (Institutional Committee for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, RES (CD) 2375/2017), that is in accord with the standards for the care of laboratory animals as outlined in the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NIH).
Keywords: Maternal alcoholism, Adult Neurogenesis, hippocampus, Dentate Gyrus, Ethanol, Neuronal progenitor
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