Maternidade, participação no mercado de trabalho e informalidade: um estudo de impacto para o período 2012-2019
22 Pages Posted: 17 Nov 2022 Last revised: 21 Nov 2022
Date Written: September 15, 2022
The child penalty corresponds to salary differentials between women who share similar personal and professional characteristics but differ only by the presence or absence of a child. These differences occur, in general, after the birth of the first child, when women begin to stay behind in terms of condition or occupational position due to the flexibility required to deal with the double shift of responsibilities. Using microdata from the PNAD Contínua (PNADC/IBGE) between 2012 and 2019, our objective is to verify if Brazilian women suffer a penalty in terms of condition and occupation position in the labor market after the birth of their first child. To verify the child penalty on occupational condition and position, we adopt a combination of the Propensity Score Matching (PSM) with re-weighting technique and the Difference in Differences (DiD) method with staggered treatment adjustment. The results show a penalty in mothers' employment status who had their first children between 2012 and 2019. The proportion of inactive women reaches higher levels after the first child is born. Regarding the occupational position, there is a decrease in the proportion of mothers employed in the formal sector soon after the event. Contrary to what happens with women who became mothers, there is no effect of the birth of the first child on the condition or occupational position of men in the labor market.
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Keywords: Child penalty, First son, Labor market
JEL Classification: J13, J16, J46
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation