Snp Data Reveals the Complex and Diverse Evolutionary History of the Blue-Ringed Octopus Genus (Octopodidae: Hapalochlaena) in the Asia-Pacific

45 Pages Posted: 27 Sep 2022

See all articles by Brooke Lauren Whitelaw

Brooke Lauren Whitelaw

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Julian K. Finn

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Kyall R. Zenger

James Cook University

Ira Cooke

James Cook University - Centre for Tropical Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology

Peter Morse

California Academy of Sciences

Jan M. Strugnell

James Cook University

Abstract

The blue-ringed octopus species complex ( Hapalochlaena spp.), known to occur from Southern Australia to Japan, currently contains four formally described species ( H. maculosa, H. fasciata , H. lunulata and H. nierstraszi ). These species are distinguished based on morphological characters (iridescent blue rings and/or lines) along with reproductive strategies. However, the observation of greater morphological diversity than previously captured by the current taxonomic framework indicates that a revision is required. To examine species boundaries within the genus we used mitochondrial (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COI], cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 [COIII] and cytochrome b [Cytb]) and genome-wide SNP data (DaRT seq) from specimens collected across its geographic range including variations in depth from 3m to >100m. This investigation indicates substantially greater species diversity present within the genus Hapalochlaena than is currently described. We identified 10,346 SNPs across all locations, which when analysed support a minimum of 11 distinct clades. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial COI gene on a more limited sample set dates the diversification of the genus to ~30mya and corroborates eight of the lineages indicated by the SNP analyses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the diagnostic lined patterning of H. fasciata found in North Pacific waters and NSW, Australia is polyphyletic and therefore likely the result of convergent evolution. Several “deep water” (> 100m) lineages were also identified in this study with genetic convergence likely to be driven by external selective pressures. Examination of morphological traits, currently being undertaken in a parallel morphological study, is required to describe additional species within the complex.

Keywords: Cephalopoda, species delineation, Phylogenetics, single nucleotide polymorphism, systematics

Suggested Citation

Whitelaw, Brooke Lauren and Finn, Julian K. and Zenger, Kyall R. and Cooke, Ira and Morse, Peter and Strugnell, Jan M., Snp Data Reveals the Complex and Diverse Evolutionary History of the Blue-Ringed Octopus Genus (Octopodidae: Hapalochlaena) in the Asia-Pacific. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4231249

Brooke Lauren Whitelaw (Contact Author)

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Julian K. Finn

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Kyall R. Zenger

James Cook University ( email )

Cairns, 4878
Australia

Ira Cooke

James Cook University - Centre for Tropical Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology ( email )

Cairns, Queensland 4878
Australia

Peter Morse

California Academy of Sciences ( email )

Golden Gate Park
San Francisco, CA 49118
United States

Jan M. Strugnell

James Cook University ( email )

Cairns, 4878
Australia

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