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A Clinical-Based Study on Accommodative-Vergence Disorders in Children in Argentina

27 Pages Posted: 3 Oct 2022

See all articles by Alejandra Iurescia

Alejandra Iurescia

Quilmes Eye Center - Dr. Iurescia Eye Consultant

Andrzej Grzybowski

University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (UWM) - Department of Ophthalmology

Rafael Iribarren

Drs. Iribarren Eye Consultants

Carla Lanca

Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa - Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa (ESTeSL)

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Abstract

Purpose: To determine the relative prevalence and risk factors of accommodative-vergence disorders among children attending a paediatric Ophthalmology clinic.

Methods: This study recruited consecutive children aged 5 to 18 years attending regular annual visits at an ophthalmology clinic. Cycloplegic autorefraction and accommodative and vergence measurements were performed. Age, sex, heterophoria and refractive error were evaluated as risk factors for anomalies of binocular vision or myopia ( ≤ -0.50 D).

Results: A total of 404 children were evaluated. Their mean age was 10.96 ± 3.03 years and 59.4% were girls. Non-strabismic accommodative-vergence disorders and myopia were diagnosed in 40.1% and 35.1 % of the children, respectively. Non-strabismic children with accommodative-vergence disorders reported higher proportion of reading problems (73.7 %) compared with children with no accommodative-vergence disorders (26.3 %; p<0.001). Children with reading problems were more likely to have accommodative infacility (57.9 %) compared with children without (42.1 %; p<0.001). Non-strabismic accommodative-vergence disorders were associated with female sex (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.62; 95% CI, 1.04 - 2.52) and heterophoria (OR=1.07; 95% CI, 1.02 - 1.13). Refractive error was not associated with accommodative-vergence disorders (p=0.34).

Conclusions: Accommodative-vergence disorders and myopia accounted for 40% of the volume of an ophthalmology pediatric clinic. Accommodative and vergence disorders may impair reading performance in children and myopia may lead to visual impairment in adulthood. Thus, further research is necessary to understand the potential of public health policies to prevent, diagnose and treat those conditions.

Funding: None to declare.

Declaration of Interest:

Ethical Approval: Verbal consent was obtained from all parents after the nature of the study was explained. As there was no therapeutic intervention within the protocol, the current legislation in Argentina does not consider authorization by an accredited ethics committee to be necessary. Nevertheless, The Argentinian Council Ethics Committee was consulted and as no intervention or new test was going to be administered the Committee suggested that approval was not necessary. Data were completely anonymized and in full compliance with data protection laws.

Keywords: Myopia, binocular vision, prevalence, reading.

Suggested Citation

Iurescia, Alejandra and Grzybowski, Andrzej and Iribarren, Rafael and Lanca, Carla, A Clinical-Based Study on Accommodative-Vergence Disorders in Children in Argentina. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4236426 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4236426

Alejandra Iurescia

Quilmes Eye Center - Dr. Iurescia Eye Consultant ( email )

Andrzej Grzybowski

University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (UWM) - Department of Ophthalmology ( email )

Rafael Iribarren (Contact Author)

Drs. Iribarren Eye Consultants ( email )

Argentina

Carla Lanca

Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa - Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa (ESTeSL) ( email )

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