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A Clinical-Based Study on Accommodative-Vergence Disorders in Children in Argentina
27 Pages Posted: 3 Oct 2022More...
Purpose: To determine the relative prevalence and risk factors of accommodative-vergence disorders among children attending a paediatric Ophthalmology clinic.
Methods: This study recruited consecutive children aged 5 to 18 years attending regular annual visits at an ophthalmology clinic. Cycloplegic autorefraction and accommodative and vergence measurements were performed. Age, sex, heterophoria and refractive error were evaluated as risk factors for anomalies of binocular vision or myopia ( ≤ -0.50 D).
Results: A total of 404 children were evaluated. Their mean age was 10.96 ± 3.03 years and 59.4% were girls. Non-strabismic accommodative-vergence disorders and myopia were diagnosed in 40.1% and 35.1 % of the children, respectively. Non-strabismic children with accommodative-vergence disorders reported higher proportion of reading problems (73.7 %) compared with children with no accommodative-vergence disorders (26.3 %; p<0.001). Children with reading problems were more likely to have accommodative infacility (57.9 %) compared with children without (42.1 %; p<0.001). Non-strabismic accommodative-vergence disorders were associated with female sex (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.62; 95% CI, 1.04 - 2.52) and heterophoria (OR=1.07; 95% CI, 1.02 - 1.13). Refractive error was not associated with accommodative-vergence disorders (p=0.34).
Conclusions: Accommodative-vergence disorders and myopia accounted for 40% of the volume of an ophthalmology pediatric clinic. Accommodative and vergence disorders may impair reading performance in children and myopia may lead to visual impairment in adulthood. Thus, further research is necessary to understand the potential of public health policies to prevent, diagnose and treat those conditions.
Funding: None to declare.
Declaration of Interest:
Ethical Approval: Verbal consent was obtained from all parents after the nature of the study was explained. As there was no therapeutic intervention within the protocol, the current legislation in Argentina does not consider authorization by an accredited ethics committee to be necessary. Nevertheless, The Argentinian Council Ethics Committee was consulted and as no intervention or new test was going to be administered the Committee suggested that approval was not necessary. Data were completely anonymized and in full compliance with data protection laws.
Keywords: Myopia, binocular vision, prevalence, reading.
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation