Carbon Emissions Trading and Environmental Protection: International Evidence

39 Pages Posted: 18 Oct 2022 Last revised: 14 Dec 2023

See all articles by Jennie Bai

Jennie Bai

Georgetown University - McDonough School of Business; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Hong Ru

Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: December 13, 2023

Abstract

We study how the implementation of emissions trading systems (ETSs) impacts emissions reductions and the usage of renewable energy using a panel sample of the largest 100 countries worldwide. Exploiting cross-country variations in ETS implementations, we show that ETS adoption materially reduced greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide) emissions by 12.1% (18.1%). Moreover, ETSs reduced overall emissions by cutting the usage of fossil fuels such as coal by 23.70% while boosting the usage of renewable energy by 61.59%, on average. In contrast, introducing carbon taxes has a less effective impact on emissions reduction. It fails to boost the usage of renewable energy, though elevating tax rates and expanding tax coverage may help enhance the efficacy of carbon taxes.

Keywords: Emission Trading System, Greenhouse Gas, Renewable Energy, Climate Policy

JEL Classification: E32, E62, H23, Q54, Q58

Suggested Citation

Bai, Jennie and Ru, Hong, Carbon Emissions Trading and Environmental Protection: International Evidence (December 13, 2023). Nanyang Business School Research Paper No. 22-25, Georgetown McDonough School of Business Research Paper No. 4241378, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4241378 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4241378

Jennie Bai

Georgetown University - McDonough School of Business ( email )

3700 O Street, NW
Washington, DC 20057
United States

HOME PAGE: http://www.jenniebai.com

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) ( email )

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Hong Ru (Contact Author)

Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University ( email )

Singapore, 639798
Singapore
(+65) 67904661 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://https://hongru.mit.edu/

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