Gender Diversity, Labour in the Boardroom and Gender Quotas

57 Pages Posted: 1 Nov 2022

See all articles by Astrid Kunze

Astrid Kunze

Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) - Department of Economics; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA); CESIfo

Katrin Scharfenkamp

University of Bielefeld

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: October 31, 2022

Abstract

This study investigates boards of (non-executive) directors and whether employee representation has a positive effect on gender diversity on boards. We exploit rich, newly assembled board–director matched panel data for Norway and Germany, which contain unique information on whether a director represents shareholders or employees during the period around 2008, when a Norwegian board gender quota came into effect. We present two novel results that challenge previous thinking about the effects of board gender quotas on women directors. First, we find a positive impact of employee representation before the gender quota reform on gender diversity. Second, although the Norwegian gender quota has increased the probability of a director being female, the effect through employee representation has relatively decreased after and the implementation of the reform. We discuss potential mechanisms and implications for the design of co-determination laws and gender quotas.

Keywords: Affirmative action, employee representation, shared governance, co-determination, women, boards of directors, firm size

JEL Classification: G3, J16, K3, L21, L25, M54

Suggested Citation

Kunze, Astrid and Scharfenkamp, Katrin, Gender Diversity, Labour in the Boardroom and Gender Quotas (October 31, 2022). NHH Dept. of Economics Discussion Paper No. 16, 2022, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4262628 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4262628

Astrid Kunze (Contact Author)

Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) - Department of Economics ( email )

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HOME PAGE: http://www.nhh.no/en/employees/faculty/astrid-kunze/

Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) ( email )

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CESIfo ( email )

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Munich, DE-81679
Germany

Katrin Scharfenkamp

University of Bielefeld

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